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كَبُرَ ذ , aor. كَبُرَ , (S, A, Msb, K,) inf. n. كُبْرٌ (A, Msb, K) and كِبَرٌ and كَبَارَةٌ, (A, K,) He, (TA,) or it, (Msb,) was, or became, great, [big, or large in body, or corporeal substance: and in years, or age; (when said of a human being, often particularly signifying he attained to puberty;) and in estimation or rank or dignity;] contr. of ضَغُرَ; (A, K;) syn. عَظُمَ, (S, Msb, K,) and جَسُمَ. (K.) [In the K the pret. is twice mentioned: where it is explained as signifying the contr. of صَغُرَ, the above inf. ns. are mentioned, as in the A: where it is explained by عَظُمَ and جَسُمَ in the K, no inf. n. is mentioned; but in the TA it is there said that in the sense of عَظُمَ it relates to an affair or case, and that the inf. n. is كِبَرٌ and كَبَارَةٌ; and that in the sense of جَسُمَ it relates to anything.] ― -b2- كَبُرَ الأَمْرُ [The affair, or case, was, or became, of great moment; it was, or became, momentous: or it signifies as in the phrase next following]. (A.) ― -b3- كَبُرَ عَلَيْهِ الأَمْرُ The affair, or case, was, or became, difficult, hard, severe, grievous, distressing, afflictive, troublesome, or burdensome, to him or in its effect upon him; syn. شَقَّ. (A, * TA.) In this sense the verb is used in the Kur, x, 72, (TA,) and xlii, 11. (Bd, ii. 42.) And so in the Kur again, xvii, 53, أَوْ خَلْقًا مِمَّا يَكْبُرُ فِى صدُورِكُمْ, (TA,) meaning, أَوْخَلْقًا مِمَّا يَكْبُرُ عِنْدَكُمْ عَنْ قُبُولِ الحَيَاةِ [Or a created thing of those which are too difficult in your minds to receive life], as being the thing most remote from capability to receive life. (Bd.) [This signification is from the primary application of the verb.] -A2- كَبِرَ, aor. كَبَرَ , inf. n. كِبَرٌ and مَكْبِرٌ, He (a man, S, a human being, and a beast, TA, and a child, Msb,) became full-grown, or old, or advanced in age. (S, K.) Hence the prov., كَبِرَ عَمْرُو عَنِ الطَّوْقِ: see art. طوق.] ― -b2- [In modern Arabic, and, I believe, sometimes, in classic authors, it also signifies He became big; (said of a boy, or child, in the TA in art. رع, &c.;) i. e. attained to full growth: and to adolescence: and to puberty: see كَبِيرٌ.] This form of the verb and that first mentioned are sometimes erroneously used, each for the other, by persons of distinction as well as by the vulgar. (TA.) ― -b3- See كَبْرَةٌ, below. -A3- كَابَرْتُهُ فَكَبَرْتُهُ, aor. of the latter, كَبُرَ : see 3. ― -b2- كَبَرَهُ بِسَنَةٍ, aor. كَبُرَ , He exceeded me in age by a year. (K.) And مَا كَبَرَنِى إِِلَّا بِسَنَةٍ He did not exceed me in age save by a year. (IAar.) 2 كبّر ذ , inf. n. تكَبِيرٌ, He made a thing great. (K.) ― -b2- He magnified, or honoured; syn. عَظَّمَ. (S) ― -b3- Also, inf. n. as above, and كِبَّارٌ, (Sgh, K,) which latter is of the dial. of Belhárith Ibn-Kaab and many of the people of El-Yemen, (Sgh,) He said اَللّٰهُ أَكْبَر. (K.) See أَكْبَرُ, below. 3 كَابَرْتُهُ فَكَبَرْتُهُ ذ , aor. of the latter كَبُرَ , [I contended, or disputed, with him for superiority in greatness, and I overcame him therein.] (A.) You say كَابَرَ فُلَانٌ فُلَانًا Such a one disputed with such a one for superiority in greatness, and said I am greater than thou. (A.) ― -b2- كابرهُ, inf. n. مُكَابَرَةٌ, He vied with him; or contended with him for superiority; syn. غَالَبَهُ: and he contended against him; or he contended against him, or disputed with him, not knowing the truth or falsity of what he or his adversary said; syn. عَانَدَهُ: (Msb:) or he contended or disputed with him, knowing that what he himself said was false, and that what his adversary said was true. (Kull, p. 342.) ― -b3- It is said in a trad., لَاتُكَابِرُوا الصَّلَاةَ, meaning, لَا تُغَالِبُوهَا [app., Contend not ye against prayer.] (TA.) ― -b4- كُوبِرَ فَأَبَى [It was contended with, and refused, or would not]: said of what he would utter by a man who had an impediment in his speech. (A.) ― -b5- كَابَرَهُ عَلَى حَقِّهِ He denied, or disacknowledged, to him his right, or due, and contended with him for it; expl. by جَاحَدَهُ وَغَالَبَهُ. (A, TA. [See 1 in art. جحد.]) ― -b6- كُوبِرَ عَلَى مَالِهِ He had his property taken from him by force. (A, TA.) 4 اكبرهُ ذ , (S, Msb, K,) inf. n. إِِكْبَارٌ; (Msb;) and ↓ استكبرهُ ; (K;) He deemed it great [or formidable; see an ex., voce فَظِعَ;] it was great in his estimation; (IJ, K;) syn. إِِسْتَعْظَمَهُ. (S, Msb.) ― -b2- اكبرت She brought forth a great child, or young one. (IKtt.) ― -b3- أَصْغَرَتِ النَّاقَةُ وَأَكْبَرَتْ: see art. صغر. 5 تكبّر ذ and ↓ استكبر (S, K) and ↓ تكابر (K) He magnified himself; behaved proudly, haughtily, or insolently; (K;) syn. تَعَظَّمَ: (S:) or تكبّر signifies, as used in the Kur, vii. 143, he considered himself as of the most excellent of the creation, and as having rights which others have not: (Zj:) or this verb has two significations: one of them, he did really good and great actions, exceeding the good actions of others; and hence المُتَكَبِّرُ [applied to God] in the Kur, lix. 23: the other, he affected to do such actions, and boasted of great qualities which he did not possess; as do the generality of men; and hence, مُتَكَبِّر in the Kur, xl. 37; and the verb itself in the Kur, vii. 143: and ↓ استكبر is nearly syn. with تكبّر, and likewise has two significations: one of them, he endeavoured, and sought, to become great; and to do so, when the manner and place and time are such as are requisite, is praiseworthy: the other, he boasted of qualities which he did possess, and feigned such qualities; and to do so is blameable; and in this sense the verb is used in the Kur, ii. 32: (El-Basáïr:) and ↓ تكابر signifies he feigned himself great in estimation or rank or dignity, or in age. (A, TA.) ― -b2- تكبّر عَلَى ا@للّٰهِ He magnified himself against God, by refusing to accept the truth. (El-Basáïr.) ― -b3- [تكبّر عَنْ كَذَا He was disdainful of such a thing; he disdained it; turned from it with disdain; he held himself above it; like تَعَظَّمَ and تَعَاظَمَ and تَجَالَّ and تَرَفَّعَ.] 6 تَكَاْبَرَ see 5, in two places. 10 إِِسْتَكْبَرَ see 4: -A2- see also 5, in two places. كُبْرٌ ذ : see كِبْرٌ, in two senses: -A2- and see كِبْرَةٌ in three places. كِبْرٌ ذ Greatness [in corporeal substance, and in estimation or rank or dignity]. (IKoot, Msb.) ― -b2- Nobility; eminence; highness; (K, * TA;) as also ↓ كُبْرٌ : (K:) eminence, or highness, in, or with respect to, nobility; (K;) as also ↓ كُبُرٌ , with two dammehs. (TA.) ― -b3- I. q. عَظَمَةٌ [which, as an attribute of God, signifies greatness, or majesty, or the like: (see مُنَكَبِّرٌ:) and as an attribute of a man, pride]: (S, Msb, K:) a subst. from التَّكَبُّرُ: (Msb:) as also ↓ كِبْرِيَآءُ ; (S, Msb, K;) a word, says Kr, of which there is not the like [in measure], except سِيمِيَآءُ and جِرْبِيَآءُ; for, he adds, as to كِيمِيَآءُ, I think it a foreign word: (TA:) the latter [↓ كِبْرِيَاءُ ] occurs as an attribute of God, in the sense of عَظَمَةٌ, (A, Mgh, Jel,) in the Kur, xlv. 36: (Jel:) and as an attribute of men, in the Kur, x. 79, where it is said to signify proud behaviour towards others, (Bd,) or dominion: (IAmb, Bd, Jel:) and both signify pride, haughtiness, or insolence: (K:) or the former, self-admiration, or self-conceit; and the holding one's self greater than others: and the ↓ latter, disdain of submission; an attribute to which none but God has a right. (El-Basáïr.) ― -b4- Unbelief: the association of any other being with God. So in a trad., in which it is said, that he who has in his heart the weight of a grain of mustard-seed of كِبْر shall not enter paradise. (TA.) ― -b5- See also كَبِيرَةٌ. -A2- The main, or greater, or greatest, part of a thing; (Fr. ISk, Az, S, Mgh, K;) as also ↓ كُبْرٌ , (Fr, Mgh, Sgh, K,) like عُظْمٌ; (Fr;) thought by Ibn-ElYezeedee to be a dial. form; but Az says, that the Arabs used the other form [كِبْرٌ]. (TA.) So in the Kur, xxiv. 11, وَا@لَّذِى تَوَلَّى كِبْرَهُ (Fr, S) And he who took upon himself, or undertook, the main part thereof; namely, of the very wicked lie against 'Áïsheh: (Jel:) thus accord. to the “ Seven Readers ”: and ↓ كُبْرَهُ , which is an extr. reading, (Msb,) the reading of Homeyd Ibn-El-Aaraj, (Fr, Sgh,) and of Yaakoob. (Sgh, Bd.) كُبْرُ سِيَاسَةِ النَّاسِ فِى المَالِ, [app. signifies The main part of men's management is with respect to property, or camels, &c.]. (S.) كَبَرٌ ذ [The caper, or capparis of Linnæus;] a certain plant having thorns; (TA;) an arabicized word, from the Persian [كَبَرْ]; (S;) called in Arabic لَصَفٌ, (Mgh,) or أَصَفٌ: (S, K:) the vulgar say ↓ كُبَّارٌ . (K.) A beverage is described as made of كَبَر and barley: كثر is a mistranscription. (Mgh.) كُبُرٌ ذ : see كِبْرٌ. كِبَرٌ ذ inf. n. of 1: ― -b2- see also كَبْرَةٌ. كُبُرٌّ ذ : see كِبْرَةٌ. كَبْرَةٌ ذ , a subst. from كَبِرَ, (S,) Oldness; age; old age; (S, Msb, K; *) as also ↓ كَبُرَةٌ and ↓ مَكْبَرَةٌ and ↓ مَكبُرَةٌ (K) and ↓ مَكْبِرٌ (S, K) and ↓ كِبَرٌ . (TA.) The last two, the latter of which is the most common of all, are inf. ns. of كَبِرَ.] You say عَلَتْهُ كَبُرَةٌ, (S, Msb, K,) and كَبُرَةٌ, and مُكْبَرَةٌ, and مَكْبُرَةٌ, (K,) and عَلَاهُ المَكْبِرُ, (S,) or مَكْبِرٌ, (K,) and كِبَرٌ, (TA,) [Age overcame him;] he became old, or advanced in age. (Msb.) عَلَتْهُ كَبْرَةٌ is also said, tropically, of a sword, and of the iron head or blade of a weapon, when it has become old: (TA:) or of an old iron head or blade of a weapon when spoilt by rust. (M, TA.) And كَبْرَةٌ is used by AHn with respect to dates and the like. (L.) [See also an ex. voce حَلْقَةٌ.] كِبْرَةٌ ذ : see كَبِيرَةٌ. -A2- هُوَ كِبْرَتُهُمْ, (K,) and ↓ كُبُرَّتُهُمْ , (Az, K,) so in the handwriting of AHeyth., (TA,) and ↓ إِِكْبِرَّتُهُمْ , and ↓ أَكْبِرَّتُهُمْ , and ↓ كُبْرُهُمْ , and ↓ كُبُرُّهُمْ , (K,) He is the greatest of them (K, TA) in age, or in headship: (TA:) or he is the nearest of them in kin to his chief, or oldest, ancestor; (K, TA;) his intermediate ancestors being fewer in number: (TA:) but some of these epithets are differently explained, as follows:] هٰذَا كِبْرَةُ أَبِيهِ this is the greatest, or oldest, (أَكْبَرُ,) of the children of his father; contr. of صِغْرَةُ أَبِيهِ: (A:) and هُوَ كِبْرَةُ وَلَدِ أَبَوَيْهِ he is the greatest, or oldest, (اكبر,) of the children of his parents: (Ks, Az:) or he is the last of the children of his parents; (Sh, S;) and the like is said of a female, (Sh, ISk, S,) and of a pl. number: (ISk, S:) it is like عِجْزَةُ وَلَدِ أَبَوَيْهِ: (Sh, A'Obeyd, S:) or, accord. to Ks and Az, this last phrase has this meaning; but Az says, that كِبْرَة means otherwise, namely, أَكْبَرُ: (TA:) and فُلَانٌ إِِكْبِرَّةُ قَوْمِهِ such a one is the greatest, or oldest, (أَكْبَرُ,) of his people; and the like is said of a female, and of a pl. number: (S:) and قَوْمِهِ ↓ هُوَ كُبْرُ , (S,) or قَوْمِهِ ↓ أَكْبَرُ , and قَوْمِهِ ↓ أُكْبُرُّ , of the measure of أُفْعُلّ, and applied to a woman as to a man, (TA,) he is the nearest of his people in kin to his chief, or oldest, ancestor; (S, TA;) in which sense, قَوْمِهِ ↓ كَانَ كُبْرَ is said of El-'Abbás, in a trad., because there remained not, in his lifetime, any one of the descendants of Háshim more nearly related to him than he: (L:) and in another trad. it is said, الَولآءُ للكُبْرِ (S, Mgh, Msb) the right to the inheritance of the property left by an emancipated slave belongs to the nearest in kin [to the emancipater] (Mgh, Msb) of the sons of the emancipater; (Mgh;) i. e., when a man [who has emancipated a slave] dies, leaving a son and a grandson, the right to the inheritance of the property left by the emancipated slave belongs to the son, not the grandson. (S.) كَبُرَةٌ ذ : see كَبْرَةٌ. كُبُرَّةٌ ذ : see كِبْرَةٌ. كِبْرِيَآءُ ذ : see كِبْرٌ. كِبْرِيتٌ ذ : see art. كبرت. كُبَارٌ ذ : see كَبِيرٌ. كَبِيرٌ ذ Great [in body, or corporeal substance, and in estimation or rank or dignity; contr. of صَغِيرٌ, but see عَظِيمٌ]; (S, K;) as also كِبِيرٌ, as asserted by En-Nawawee and others, (TA,) and ↓ كُبَارٌ (S, K) [in an intensive sense, like عُطَامٌ,] and ↓ كَابِرٌ and ↓ كُبَّارٌ : (K:) or the last signifies excessively great: (S, TA:) and كَابِرٌ is an epithat applied to a man, and signifying great in dignity and nobility; (S, TA;) or great and noble; (Msb;) or one overcoming in greatness; (A;) or a lord, or chief; and the greatest, or oldest, ancestor: (AA:) the fem. [of كَبِيرٌ] is with ة: (K:) and the pl. is كِبَارٌ (S, K) and كُبَرَآءُ, applied to men, (TA,) and مَكْبُورَآءُ, (S, * K,) [or rather the last is a quasi-pl. n.,] like مَشْيُوخَآءُ; [see شَيْخٌ;] (TA;) and [of كُبَّارٌ] كُبَّارُونَ. (K.) [See also أَكْبَرُ, and مُتَكَبِّرٌ.] You say تَوَارَثُوا ↓ ا@لْمَجْدَ كَابِرًا عَنْ كَابِرٍ They inherited by degrees dignity, or nobility, one great in dignity and nobility from another great in dignity and nobility: (S:) or one great and noble from another great and noble: (Msb:) or عَنْ is here used in the sense of بَعْدَ [after]: (TA voce طَبَقٌ:) or one overcoming in greatness from another overcoming in greatness. (A.) [In the A and Msb, instead of توارثوا, I find وَرِثُوا.] ― -b2- Great, or advanced, in age; old: (A, Msb, TA:) and also big; meaning full-grown; and adolescent: (see كَبِرَ:) occurring in apposition to بَالِغٌ in art. برك in the S; and often, like بَالِغٌ, when applied to a human being, signifying one who has attained to puberty; opposed to صَغِيرٌ:] fem. with ة: and pl. كِبَارٌ. (Msb.) ― -b3- [Hence,] A teacher, and master: so in the Kur, xx. 74, and xxvi. 48: (Ks:) and the most knowing, or learned, of a people: so in the Kur, xii. 80. (Mujáhid.) ― -b4- Difficult, severe, grievous, distressing, afflictive, troublesome, or burdensome: (TA:) fem. with ة; occurring in this sense in the Kur, ii. 42. (Bd, TA.) [The fem. is often used in the present day as an epithet in which the quality of a subst. predominates, meaning, An affair, or a matter, that is difficult, severe, grievous, &c.] ― -b5- الكَبِيرُ as an epithet applied to God is syn. with العَظِيمُ [signifying The Incomparably-great]. (TA in art. عظم.) كَبِيرَة ذ A foul, or an abominable, sin, or crime, or offence, forbidden by the law, of great magnitude; such as murder and adultery or forni- cation, and fleeing from an army proceeding against an enemy [of the Muslims], &c.; [contr. of صَغِيرَةٌ;] an epithet in which the quality of a subst. predominates: (TA:) and ↓ كِبْرٌ and ↓ كِبْرَةٌ [in like manner] signify a great sin, or crime, or offence, for which one deserves punishment: (M, K:) the ة is to give intensiveness to the signification: (TA:) or ↓ كِبْرٌ signifies [simply] a sin, a crime, or an offence, for which one deserves punishment, [as كَبِيرَةٌ is said, not well, to signify, in the Msb,] and is from كَبِيرَةٌ, like خِطْ from خَطِيْئَةٌ: (TA:) pl. of the first, كَبَائِرُ, (Msb, TA,) and كَبِيرَاتٌ also occurs. (Msb.) ― -b2- And see كَبِيرٌ. كُبَّارٌ ذ : see كَبِيرٌ: -A2- and see كَبَرٌ. كِبَّارٌ ذ : see 2. كَابِرٌ ذ : see كَبِيرٌ. أَكْبَرُ ذ [Greater, and greatest, in body, or corporeal substance, and in estimation or rank or dignity: and] more, or most, advanced in age; older, and oldest: (Msb:) fem. كُبْرَى: (S, Msb:) pl. masc. أَكَابِرُ (S, Msb) and أَكْبَرُونَ; but not كُبْرٌ, because this is of a form specially appropriated to an epithet such as أَسْوَدُ and أَحْمَرُ, and you do not use اكبر in the manner of such an epithet, for you do not say هٰذَا رَجُلٌ أَكْبَرُ, unless you conjoin it with a following word by مِنْ, or prefix to it the article ال: (S:) [but see the phrase دَعَا بِكُبْرِهِ, below:] the pl. fem. is كُبَرٌ (S, Msb, K) and كُبْرَيَاتٌ. (Msb.) ― -b2- أَكْبَرُ is also used in the sense of كَبِيرٌ: (Msb:) accord. to some, اَللّٰهُ أَكْبَر means God is great; (Az, Mgh, Msb;) like as هُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ [in the Kur, xxx. 26,] means هُوَ هَيِّنٌ عَلَيْهِ; (Az, TA;) but this explanation is of weak authority: (Mgh:) accord. to others, the phrase is elliptical, and means God is the greatest great [being]: (Az, TA:) or God is greater than every [other] great [being]: (Msb:) or greater than every [other] thing: (Mgh, TA:) or greater than such as that one knows the measure of His majesty: (TA:) [or it may be rendered God is most great, meaning, greater than any other being:] it is considered as elliptical because it is necessary that اكبر should have the article ال, or be followed by a noun in the gen. case [or by the prep. مِنْ]. (TA.) In the phrase اَللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ كَبِيراً, the word كبيرا is put in the accus. case [as a corroborative] in the place of the inf. n. تَكْبِيراً, as though one said أُكَبِّرُ تَكْبِيرًا [I magnify Him greatly, after saying اللّٰه اكبر]. (TA.) ― -b3- يَوْمُ الحَجِّ الأَكْبَرِ [The day of the greater pilgrimage,] means the day of the sacrifice: or, as some say, the day of 'Arafeh: and others say otherwise. (TA.) ― -b4- In the following words, in a trad. of Mázin, بُعِثَ نَبِىٌّ مِنْ مُضَرَ بِدِينِ ا@للّٰهِ الكُبَرِ, there is an ellipsis, and the meaning is, بِشَرَئِعِ دِينِ ا@للّٰهِ الكُبَرِ [A prophet of Mudar hath been sent with the greatest, or greater, or great, ordinances of God]. (TA.) ― -b5- In a trad. respecting burial, وَيُجْعَلُ ا@لْأَكْبَرُ مِمَّا يَلِى ا@لْقِبْلَةَ means, And the most excellent shall be placed towards the Kibleh: or, if they be equal [in dignity], the oldest. (TA.) [Agreeably with the former rendering,] أَكْبَرُ, in the Kur, xxix. 44, is explained as signifying Better. (TA, art. ذكر.) [And agreeably with the second rendering of the above trad.,] you say هٰذَا أَكْبَرُ مِنْ زَيْدٍ, meaning, This is older than Zeyd. (Msb.) ― -b6- In a trad. of Ibn-Ez-Zubeyr, the phrase دَعَا بِكُبْرِهِ means He summoned his sheykhs, and elders, or great men: كُبْر being here [notwithstanding what has been said above,] pl. of أَكْبَرُ, like as حُمْرٌ is pl. of أَحْمَرُ. (TA.) ― -b7- هٰذِهِ الجَارِيَةُ مِنْ كُبْرَى بَنَاتِ فُلَانٍ means, [This girl is of those advanced in age of the daughters of such a one,] مِنْ كِبَارِ بَنَاتِهِ. (Ibn-Buzurj.) ― -b8- هُوَ أَكْبَرُ قَوْمِهِ: see كِبْرَةٌ. أُكْبُرٌّ ذ : see كِبْرَةٌ. إِِكْبِرَّةٌ ذ and أَكْبِرَّةٌ: see كِبْرَةٌ; the former, in two places. مَكْبِرٌ ذ : see كَبْرَةٌ. مَكْبَرَةٌ ذ and مَكْبُرَةٌ: see كَبْبَرةٌ. هُوَ مُكَابَرٌ عَلَيْهِ ذ He has had it (his property) taken from him by force. (A, TA.) المُتَكَبِّرُ ذ , as an epithet applied to God, signifies The Great in majesty: (A:) or the Most Excellent of beings, who has rights which no other has; the Possessor of power and excellence the like of which no other possesses: (TA:) or He whose acts are really good, exceeding the good acts of any other: (El-Basáïr:) or, as also ↓ الكَبِيرُ , the Majestic: or He who disdains having the attributes of created beings: or He who magnifies Himself against the proud and exorbitant among his creatures: the ت in the former word is to denote individuation, not endeavour. (TA.)
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