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كَادَ يَفْعَلُ كَذَا ذ , (S, K, * &c,) [originally كَوِدَ,] first pers. كِدْتُ, accord. to the usage of most of the Arabs, (IKtt,) aor. يَكَادُ, (S, K, &c.,) the form used by all the Arabs, (IKtt.) or يَكُودُ [is also used, by some of those who make the pret. to be originally كَوُدَ], (Lth,) inf. n. كَوْدٌ (Lth, S, M, K, &c) and كَادٌ (M, IKtt) and مَكَادَةٌ (Lth, S, M, K, &c.) and مَكَادٌ; (Lth, M, K;) and كَادَ, originally كَوُدَ, deviating from constant rule, (MF,) first pers. كُدْتُ, (S, IKtt, MF,) in the dial. of the Benoo-'Adee, (MF,) mentioned by Sb as heard from some of the Arabs, (S,) aor. يَكَادُ, (IKtt,) deviating from constant rule, (MF,) [and يَكُودُ, mentioned above, agreeably with rule;] as also كَادَ, (Msb, K, art. كيد,) originally كَيِدَ, first pers. كِدْتُ, aor. يَكَادُ, (Msb, art. كيد,) inf. n. كَيْدٌ; (L, art. كيد;) and كِيدَ, (S, K, &c.,) a form mentioned by Abu-l-Khattáb to Sb, as used by some of the Arabs, who in like manner said مَا زِيلَ يَفْعَلُ كَذَا, for كَادَ and زَالَ; (S;) He was near to doing so; he nearly, well nigh, or almost, did so; he wanted but little of doing so; (Akh, S, M, K, &c.;) he purposed, or intended, doing so; (Lth, M, IKtt;) but did it not, [or did it not immediately]. (Akh, S, K, &c.) كَادَ is applied to signify the being near to doing a thing whether it be [afterwards] done or not done. (S.) Without a negative, it enunciates the negation of the action; and coupled with a negative, it enunciates the happening of the action. (S, K.) [This will be explained in the course of the following observations.] It is (as Es-Suyootee says in the Itkán) an incomplete [i. e. a non-attributive] verb, of which only the pret. and aor. are used. It has a noun as the subject, in the nom. case; and an aor., [generally] without أَنْ, as the predicate. (TA.) Sometimes they introduce أَنْ after it, likening it to عَسَى; as, for ex., in the saying of Ru-beh, “ قَدْ كَادَ مِنْ طُولِ البِلَى أَنْ يَمْصَحَا
” [It had nearly come to nought from length of wear]. (S.) Used affirmatively, it is affirmative of the being near [to doing a thing, &c.]; and used negatively, it is negative thereof. It is a well-known opinion of many, that, used affirmatively, it is negative; and used negatively, it is affirmative: so that كَادَ زَيْدٌ يَفْعَلُ means [Zeyd was near to doing; but] he did not [or did not immediately]; as is shown by the expression [in the Kur xvii. 75, where إِِنْ is a contraction of إِِنَّ,] وَإِِنْ كَادُوا لَيَفْتِنُونَكَ [And verily they were near to seducing thee]: and مَا كَادَ يَفْعَلُ means [He was not near to doing; but] he did; as is shown by the expression [in the Kur ii. 66,] وَمَا كَادُوا يَفْعَلُونَ [And they were not near to doing (it); but they afterwards did (it）]. I'Ab is related to have said, that wherever كَادَ and أَكَادُ and يَكَادُ occur in the Kur-án, they denote a thing's never happening. Some say, that كَادَ [with a negative] denotes an action's happening with difficulty. Some, again, say, that the pret. preceded by a negative is affirmative [of the action &c.]; as is shown by the expression وَمَا كَادُوا يَفْعَلُونَ [quoted above]: and that the aor. preceded by a negative is negative; as is shown by the expression [in the Kur xxiv, 40,] لَمْ يَكَدْ يَرَاهَا [He is not near to seeing it]; meaning that he sees not anything: [though this phrase is said to bear a different meaning, which see below]. But the correct opinion is the one first mentioned; that, used affirmatively, it is affirmative [of the being near to do a thing &c.]; and used negatively, it is negative [thereof]: so that كَادَ يَفْعَلُ signifies He was near to doing; but did not [or did not immediately]: and مَا كَادَ يَفْعَلُ He was not near to doing; much less did he do [or do immediately]; the denial of the action [or of the immediate performance of the action] being necessarily understood from the denial of the being near to do it. As to the expression in the Kur, وَمَا كَادُوا يَفْعَلُونَ [quoted above], it enunciates the state of the people to whom it relates in the beginning of their case; for they were far from sacrificing the cow; and the affirmation of the action is understood only from the [preceding] expression فَذَبَحُوهَا. And as to the expression [in the Kur xvii. 76,] لَقَدْ كِدتَّ تَرْكَنُ إِِلَيْهِمْ [Thou hadst certainly been near to inclining to them], the Prophet's not inclining to them little or much is understood from لَوْلَا [preceding], which requires this inference. (TA.) [Often, however, or (as some say) generally, with a negative preceding or following it, it is affirmative of the action's happening, but only after difficulty, or delay.] Aboo-Bekr says, that مَا كَادَ فُلَانٌ يَقُومُ means [Such a one hardly, or scarcely, or tardily, rose; like لَمْ يَكَدْ يَقُومُ, and كَادَ لَا يَقُومُ; وَقَدْ قَامَ being understood; or] he rose after being slow, or tardy: (L:) and accord. to Az and others, مَا كِدْتُ أَفْعَلُ means [I hardly, or scarcely, or tardily, did; or] I did after being slow, or tardy: but sometimes it means I was not near to doing. (Msb, art. كيد.) It is said, that كَادَ is sometimes a [mere redundant] connective (صِلَة) of the members of a sentence; (Kutr, Akh, AHát, K;) as in لَمْ يَكَدْ يَرَاهَا [quoted above], meaning, He does not see it: (K:) or this means he is not near to seeing it: or, as some say, he sees it after his having been not near to seeing it by reason of the intenseness of the darkness: [or he hardly, or scarcely, or tardily, sees it:] and Fr says, with reference to the verse in which this phrase occurs, that it is allowable to say لَمْ يَكَدْ يَقُومُ [meaning, He hardly, or scarcely, or tardily, rose] when one has risen after difficulty. (TA.) [Thus it appears, that, مَا كَادَ يَفْعَلُ and لَمْ يَكَدْ يَفْعَلُ sometimes signify He hardly, or scarcely, or tardily, did: and sometimes, he was not near to doing; he never did; he did not at all: so that it may be rendered he hardly or scarcely, or nowise or in nowise or never, did: or he could hardly do, or he could not at all, or could not nearly, or he could nowise or in nowise, do.] ― -b2- As asserts his having heard certain of the Arabs say, لَا أَفْعَلُ ذٰلِكَ وَلَا كَوْدًا [I will not do that, nor will I be near to doing it]. (S.) ― -b3- كَادَ also signifies He desired; syn. أَرَادَ. (Akh, S, K.) So in the verse “ كَادَتْ وَكِدْتُ وَتِلْكَ خَيْرُ إِِرَادَةٍ
لَوْ عَادَ مِنْ لَهْوِ الصَّبَابَةِ مَا مَضَى
” [She desired, and I desired; and that were the best of desire, if what hath passed, of the diverting delight of tender love, returned]. (Akh, S.) So, too, in the saying in the Kur [xx. 15,] أَكَادُ أُخْفِيهَا I desire (S, K) to conceal it: or, to manifest it: (Beyd:) for, like as it is allowable to put أُرِيدُ in the place of أَكَادُ, as in the saying in the Kur [xviii. 76,] جِدَارًا يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَنْقَضَّ, so it is to use اكاد [in the place of اريد]: Akh says, that the words of the verse in question mean I will conceal it, أُخْفِيهَا: and some say, that the meaning is I will manifest it: (TA:) but most hold, that اكاد should here be rendered in its original sense. (MF, TA.) Some of the Arabs make كاد to denote certainty; like ظَنَّ, which primarily denotes doubt, and secondarily certainty. (L, art. كيد.) ― -b4- عَرَفَ مَا يُكَادُ مِنْهُ [is in like manner explained] He hath become acquainted with that which is desired of him. (S, K.) ― -b5- You say to him who seeks of you a thing, when you do not desire to give him it, لَا وَلَا مَكَادَةَ وَلَا مَهَمَّةَ, (Lth, S, * L, K, *) and لَا كَوْدًا وَلَا هَمًّا, and لَا مَكَادًا وَلَا مَهَمًّا, (Lth, L,) i. e. لَا أَكَادُ وَلَا أَهُمُّ [No, nor do I desire, nor do I purpose, or intend]. (Lth, L, K.) ― -b6- You also say, in the same sense, لَا مَهَمَّةَ لِى وَلَا مَكَادَةَ [I have no purpose or intention, nor any desire]. (S) ― -b7- See also كَادَ in art. كيد.
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