previous next


(from stips and pendo). The pay of a Roman soldier. Originally each tribe had to contribute the necessary means to provide for its contingent. It was only at the beginning of the war against Veii in B.C. 404 that payment of a sum by the State was introduced. This was given to the soldiers, either before or after the campaign, as compensation for the cost of their living during its continuance. When this had gradually become a regular payment, it grew customary, in making it, to deduct everything which the State had provided for the army in the way of clothing, arms, and food; but under the Empire maintenance was given free. In the time of Polybius the pay of legionaries was 120 denarii ($20); of centurions twice, and of knights three times that amount. Caesar increased it to 225 denarii ($37.50) for a legionary, Domitian to 300 ($50). The praetorians received under Tiberius 720 denarii ($120). See Exercitus; Praetoriani.

Stipendium is also the name of the fixed normal tax imposed on conquered provinces, which might consist of money, or produce, or both (see Provincia). During the Republic, when a country was conquered, this was usually fixed according to the amount of the existing taxes, and the country divided into fiscal districts, and the officials of the chief places in each compelled to pay in the portion which fell to them. Under Augustus the taxes were for the first time fixed upon the basis of a measurement of the ground occupied, and of a computation of property (census). The stipendium was either a ground-tax (tributum soli) or a personal tax (tributum capitis), which was partly a poll-tax, partly a property-tax, partly a tax on the trade carried on by the individual. In exceptional cases special taxes were also imposed. Those bound to pay the stipendium were called stipendiarii.

See Mommsen, Staatsverwaltung, v. pp. 90 foll.; Durean de la Malle, Économie Politique des Romains, i. pp. 134 foll.; and Mommsen, Die römische Tribus, pp. 131 foll.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: