Come now, where shall our conversation rise?as Cephisodorus the comic poet says, my good friend Timocrates; for when we were all met together at a convenient season, and with serious minds, to discuss the goblets, Ulpian, while every one was sitting still, and before any one began to speak at all, said,—At the court of Adrastus, my friends, the chief men of the nation sup while sitting down. But Polyidus, while sacrificing on the road, detained Peteos as he was passing by, and while lying on the grass, strewing some leaves which he had broken off on the ground by way of a table, set before him some part of the victim which he had sacrificed. And when Autolycus had come to the rich [p. 726] people of Ithaca, and while he was sitting down, (for the men of that time ate their meals while sitting down,) the nurse took Ulysses, (as the poet says—
His course to Ithaca the hero spedand placed him on his knees, not near his knees. So let us not waste time now, but let us lie down, that Plutarch may lead the way in the lecture which he promised us on the subject of goblets, and that he may pledge us all in bumpers.
When first the product of Laertes' bed
Was new disclosed to birth; the banquet ends
When Euryclea from the queen descends,
And to his fond embrace the babe commends:)
But I imagine that Simonides of Amorgus is the first poet who has spoken of drinking cups (ποτήρια) by name in his iambics, thus—
The cups away did lead him from the table.And the author of the poem called the Alcmæonis says—
He placed the corpses lowly on the shoreAnd the word ποτήριον comes from πόσις, drink, as the Attic word ἔκπωμα also does; but they form the word with ω, as they also say ὑδροπωτέω, to drink water, and οἰνοπωτέω, to drink wine. Aristophanes, in his Knights, says—
On a broad couch of leaves; and by their side
A dainty feast he spread, and brimming cups,
And garlands on their noble temples wreathed.
A stupid serpent drinking deep of blood (αἱματοπώτης).But he also says in the same play—
Much then did Bacis use the cup (ποτήριον).And Pherecrates, in his Tyranny, says—
One is better than a thousand cups (ποτήρια).And Anacreon said—
I am become a wine-bibber (οἰνοπώτης).And the verb occurs also in the same poet, for he says οἰνοποτάζων. And Sappho, in her second Ode, says—
And many countless cups (ποτήρια), O beauteous Iphis.And Alcæus says—
And from the cups (ποτηρία). . . . .And in Achaia Ceres is honoured under the title of δημήτηρ ποτηριοφόρος, in the territories of the Antheans, as Autocrates informs us in the second book of his History of Achaia. [p. 727]
And I think it right that you should inquire, before we begin to make a catalogue of the cups of which this sideboard (κυλικεῖον) is full,—(for that name is given to the cupboard where the cups are kept, by Aristophanes, in his Farmers—
As a cloth is placed in front of a sideboard (κυλικεῖον);and the same word occurs also in Anaxandrides in his Melilotus; and Eubulus in his Leda says—
As if he had been offering a libation,And in his Female Singer he says—
He's broken all the goblets in the sideboard (κυλικεῖον).
And he found out the use of sideboards (κυλικεῖα) for us.And in his Semele or Bacchus he says—
Hermes the son of Maia, polish'd wellAnd the younger Cratinus, in his Chiron, says—
Upon the sideboard. . . . .
But, after many years, I now have come
Home from my enemies; and scarce have found
Relations who would own me, or companions
Of the same tribe or borough. I enroll'd
My name among a club of cup-collectors (κυλικεῖον):
Jupiter is the guardian of my doors—
Protector of my tribe. I pay my taxes.)
It is worth while, I say, to inquire whether the ancients drank out of large cups. For Dicæarchus the Messenian, the pupil of Aristotle, in his Essay on Alcæus, says that they used small cups, and that they drank their wine mixed with a good deal of water. But Chamæleon of Heraclea, in his essay on Drunkenness, (if I only recollect his words correctly,) says—“But if those who are in power and who are rich prefer this drunkenness to other pleasures, it is no great wonder, for as they have no other pleasure superior to this, nor more easy to obtain, they naturally fly to wine: on which account it has become customary among the nobles to use large drinking-cups. For this is not at all an ancient custom among the Greeks; but one that has been lately adopted, and imported from the barbarians. For they, being destitute of education, rush eagerly to much wine, and provide themselves with all kinds of superfluous delicacies. But in the various countries of Greece, we neither find in pictures nor in poems any trace of any cups of large size being made, except indeed in the heroic times. For the cup which is called ῥυτὸν they [p. 728] attributed only to the heroes, which fact will appear a per- plexing one to some people; unless indeed any one should choose to say that this custom was introduced because of the fierceness of the appearance of these demigods. For they think the heroes irascible and quarrelsome, and more so by night than by day. In order, then, that they may appear to be so, not in consequence of their natural disposition, but because of their propensity for drinking, they represent them as drinking out of large cups. And it appears to me not to have been a bad idea on the part of those people who said that a large cup was a silver well.” In all this Chamæleon appears to be ignorant that it is not a small cup which in Homer is given to the Cyclops by Ulysses; for if it had been a small one, he would not have been so overcome with drunkenness after drinking it three times only, when he was a man of such a monstrous size. There were therefore large cups at that time; unless any one chooses to impute it to the strength of the wine, which Homer himself has mentioned, or to the little practice which the Cyclops had in drinking, since his usual beverage was milk; or perhaps it was a barbaric cup, since it was a big one, forming perhaps a part of the plunder of the Cicones. What then are we to say about Nestor's cup, which a young man would scarcely have had strength enough to carry, but which the aged Nestor lifted without any labour; concerning which identical cup Plutarch shall give us some information. However, it is time now to lie down at table.
And when they had all laid themselves down;-But, said Plutarch, according to the Phliasian poet Pratinas—
Not ploughing ready-furrow'd ground,Nor indeed am I one of those κυλίκρανοι whom Hermippus, the comic poet, ridicules in his iambics, where he says—
But, seeking for a goblet,
I come to speak about the cups (κυλικηγορήσων).
I've come now to the vineyard of the Cylicranes,But these are Heracleans who live at the foot of Mount Œta, as Nicander of Thyatira says; saying that they are so named from a certain Cylix, a Lydian by birth, who was one of the comrades of Hercules. And they are mentioned also by Scythinus the Teian, in his work entitled The History, [p. 729] where he says, “Hercules, having taking Eurytus and his son, put them to death for exacting tribute from the people of Eubœa. And he laid waste the territory of the Cylicranes for behaving like robbers; and there he built a city called Heraclea of Trachis.” And Polemo, in the first of his books, addressed to Adæus and Antigonus, speaks thus—“But the inhabitants of the Heraclea which is at the foot of Mount Œta, and of Trachis, are partly some Cylicranes who came with Hercules from Lydia, and partly Athamanes, some of whose towns remain to this day. And the people of Heraclea did not admit them to any of the privileges of citizenship, considering them only as foreigners sojourning amongst them; and they were called Cylicranes, because they had the figure of a cup (κύλιξ) branded on their shoulders.”
And seen Heraclea, a beauteous city.
I am aware, too, that Hellanicus says, in his treatise on the Names of Races, that “Some of the Libyan nomades have no other possessions than a cup, and a sword, and a ewer, and they have small houses made of the stalks of asphodel, merely just to serve as a shade, and they even carry them about with them wherever they go.” There is also a spot amongst the Illyrians, which has been celebrated by many people, which is called κύλικες, near to which is the tomb of Cadmus and Harmonia, as Phylarchus relates in the twenty-second book of his Histories. And Polemo, in his book on Morychus, says that at Syracuse, on the highest spot of the part called the Island, there is an alter near the temple of Olympia, outside the walls, from which he says that people when putting to sea carry a goblet with them, keeping it until they get to such a distance that the shield in the temple of Minerva cannot be seen; and then they let it fall into the sea, being an earthenware cup, putting into it flowers and honeycombs, and uncut frankincense, and all sorts of other spices besides.
And since I now see your banquet, as Xeophanes the Colophonian says, full of all kinds of pleasure—
For now the floor and all men's hands are clean,
And all the cups, and since the feasters' brows
Are wreathed with garlands, while the slaves around
Bring fragrant perfume in well-suited dishes;
And in the middle stands the joyful bowl.
And wine's at hand, which ne'er deserts the guests
Who know its worth, in earthen jars well kept,
Well flavour'd, fragrant with the sweet fresh flowers;
[p. 730] And in the midst the frankincense sends forth
Its holy perfume; and the water's cold,
And sweet, and pure; and golden bread's at hand,
And duly honour'd tables, groaning under
Their weight of cheese and honey;—then an altar,
Placed in the centre, all with flow'rs is crown'd.
And song and feasting occupies the house,
And dancing, and all sorts of revelry:—
Therefore it does become right-minded men
First with well-omen'd words and pious prayers
To hymn the praises of the Gods; and so,
With pure libations and well-order'd vows,
To win from them the power to act with justice-
For this comes from the favour of the Gods;
And you may drink as much as shall not hinder
You from returning home without assistance,
Unless, indeed, you're very old: and he
Deserves to be above his fellows lauded
Who drinks and then says good and witty things,
Such as his memory and taste suggests,—
Who lays down rules, and tells fine tales of virtue;
Not raking up the old Titanic fables,
Wars of the Giants, or the Lapithæ,
Figments of ancient times, mere pleasing trifles,
Full of no solid good; but always speaking
Things that may lead to right ideas of God.
And the exquisite Anacreon says—
I do not love the man who, 'midst his cups,And Ion of Chios says—
Says nothing but old tales of war and strife,
But him who gives its honour due to mirth,
Praising the Muses and the bright-faced Venus.
Hail, our great king, our saviour, and our father!Those also who were called the seven wise men used to make drinking parties; “for wine comforts the natural moroseness of old age,” as Theophrastus says, in his treatise on Drunkenness. [p. 731]
And let the cupbearers now mix us wine
In silver jugs: and let the golden bowl
Pour forth its pure libations on the ground,
While duly honouring the mighty Jove.
First of the Gods, and first in all our hearts,
We pour libations to Alcmena's son,
And to the queen herself,—to Procles too,
And the invincible chiefs of Perseus' line.
Thus let us drink and sport; and let the song
Make the night cheerful; let the glad guests dance;
And do thou willingly preside among us:
But let the man who's a fair wife at home
Drink far more lustily than those less happy.
On which account, when we are met together in these Dionysiac conversaziones, no one, as is said in the Tarentines of Alexis—
No one can find a just pretence to grudge usAnd, in the words of the beautiful Sappho,—
Our harmless pleasure, since we never injure
One of our neighbours. Know you not, my friend,
That what is called life is but a name,
Well soften'd down (to make it palatable),
For human fate? And whether any one
Thinks that I'm right or wrong in what I say,
I cannot change a word; for well I know,
And long have I consider'd the whole matter,
That all th' affairs of men are full of madness,
And we who live are only sojourners,
Like men who go to some great festival,
Starting from death and darkness to a pastime,
And to this light which we behold before us.
But he who laughs and drinks most cheerfully,
And most enjoys the charming gifts of Venus,
And most attends on feasts and festivals,
He goes through life, and then departs most happily.
Come, O Venus, hither come,
Bringing us thy goblets fair,
Mingled with the merry feast;
And pour out sparkling wine, I pray,
To your and my companions gay.
And we may add to all this, that different cities have peculiar fashions of drinking and pledging one another; as Critias mentions, in his Constitution of the Lacedæmonians, where he says—“The Chian and the Thasian drink out of large cups, passing them on towards the right hand; and the Athenian also passes the wine round towards the right, but drinks out of small cups. But the Thessalian uses large cups, pledging whoever he pleases, without reference to where he may be; but among the Lacedæmonians, ever one drinks out of his own cup, and a slave, acting as cupbearer, fills up again the cup when each has drained it.” Andnaxandrides also mentions the fashion of passing the cup round towards the right hand, in his Countrymen, speaking as follows:—
A. In what way are you now prepared to drink?
Tell me, I pray.
B. In what way are we now
Prepared to drink? Why any way you please.
A. Shall we then now, my father, tell the guests
[p. 732] To push the wine to the right
B. What! to the right?
That would be just as though this were a funeral.1
But we may decline entering on the subject of goblets of earthenware; for Ctesias says–“Among the Persians, that man only uses an earthenware who is dishonoured by the king.” And Chœrilus the epic poet says—
Here in my hands I hold a wretched pieceBut I am well aware that earthenware cups are often very pleasant, as those which are imported among us from Coptus; for they are made of earth which is mixed up with spices. And Aristotle, in his treatise on Drunkenness, says—“The cups which are called Rhodiacan are brought into drinking parties, because of the pleasure which they afford, and also because, when they are warmed, they deprive the wine of some of its intoxicating properties; for they are filled with myrrh and rushes, and other things of the same sort, put into water and then boiled; and when this mixture is put into the wine, the drinkers are less apt to become intoxicated.” And in another place he says—“The Rhodiacan cups consist of myrrh, flowery rushes, saffron, balsam, spikenard, and cinnamon, all boiled together; and when some of this compound is added to the wine, it has such effect in preventing intoxication, that it even diminishes the amorous propensities, checking the breath in some degree.”
Of earthen goblet, broken all around,
Sad relic of a band of merry feasters;
And often the fierce gale of wanton Bacchus
Dashes such wrecks with insult on the shore.
We ought not, then, to drink madly, looking at the multitude of these beautiful cups, made as they are with every sort of various art, in various countries. “But the common people,” says Chrysippus, in the introduction to his treatise on what is Good and Evil, "apply the term madly to a great number of things; and so they call a desire for women [p. 733] γυναικομανία, a fondness for quails ὀρτυγομανία; and some also call those who are very anxious for fame δοξομανεῖς; just as they call those who are fond of women γυναικομανεῖς, and those who are fond of birds ὀρνιθομανεῖς: all these nouns having the same notion of a propensity to the degree of madness. So that there is nothing inconsistent in other feelings and circumstances having this name applied to them; as a person who is very fond of delicacies, and who is properly called φίλοψος and ὀψοφάγος, may be called ὀψομανής; and a man very fond of wine maybe called οἰνομανής; and so in similar instances. And there is nothing unreasonable in attributing madness to such people, since they carry their errors to a very mad pitch, and wander a great distance from the real truth.
Let us, then, as was the custom among the Athenians, drink our wine while listening to these jesters and buffoons, and to other artists of the same kind. And Philochorus speaks of this kind of people in these terms—“The Athenians, in the festivals of Bacchus, originally used to go to the spectacle after they had dined and drunk their wine; and they used to witness the games with garlands on their heads. But during the whole time that the games were going on, wine was continually being offered to them, and sweetmeats were constantly being brought round; and when the choruses entered, they were offered wine; and also when the exhibition was over, and they were departing, wine was offered to them again. And Pherecrates the comic poet bears witness to all these things, and to the fact that down to his own time the spectators were never left without refreshment.” And Phanodemus says—"At the temple of Bacchus, which is in the Marshes (ἐν λίμναις), the Athenians bring wine, and mix it out of the cask for the god, and then drink of it themselves; on which account Bacchus is also called λιμναῖος, because the wine was first drunk at that festival mixed with water. On which account the fountains were called Nymphs and te Nurses of Bacchus, because the water being mingled with the wine increases the quantity of the wine. Accordingly, men being delighted with this mixture, celebrated Bacchus in their songs, dancing and invoking him under the names of Euanthes, and Dithyrambus, and Baccheutes, and Bromius." And Theophrastus, in hi treatise on Drunkenness, says—“The nymphs are really the nurses of [p. 734] Bacchus; for the vines, when cut, pour forth a great deal of moisture, and after their own nature weep.” On which account Euripides says that one of the Horses of the Sun is
Aethops, who with his fervent heat doth ripenAnd Ulysses gave
Th' autumnal vines of sweetly flow'ring Bacchus,
From which men also call wine Aethops (αἴθοπα οἶνον).
Twelve large vessels of unmix'd red wine,And Timotheus, in his Cyclops, says—
Mellifluous, undecaying, and divine,
Which now (some ages from his race conceal'd)
The hoary sire in gratitude reveal'd.
Such was the wine, to quench whose fervent steam
Scarce twenty measures from the living stream
To cool one cup sufficed; the goblet crown'd,
Breathed aromatic fragrancies around.2
He fill'd one cup, of well-turn'd iv'ry made,
With dark ambrosial drops of foaming wine;
And twenty measures of the sober stream
He poured in, and with the blood of Bacchus
Mingled fresh tears, shed by the weeping nymphs.
And I know, my messmates, of some men who were proud, not so much of their wealth in money as of the possession of many cups of silver and gold; one of whom is Pytheas the Arcadian, of the town of Phigalea, who, even when dying, did not hesitate to enjoin his servants to inscribe the following verses on his tomb:—
This is the tomb of Pytheas, a manAnd Harmodius the Lepreatian mentions this fact in his treatise on the Laws and Customs subsisting in Phigalea. And Xenophon, in the eighth book of his Cyropædia, speaking of the Persians, writes as follows—“And also they pride themselves exceedingly on the possession of as many goblets as possible; and even if they have acquired them by notorious malpractices, they are not at all ashamed of so doing; for injustice and covetousness are carried on to a great degree among them.” But Œdipus cursed his sons on account of some drinking-cups (as the author of the Cyclic poem called [p. 735] the Thebais says), because they set before him a goblet which he had forbidden; speaking as follows:—
Both wise and good, the fortunate possessor
Of a most countless number of fine cups,
Of silver made, and gold, and brilliant amber.
These were his treasures, and of them he had
A store, surpassing all who lived before him.
But the divine, the golden-hair'd hero,
Great Polynices, set before his father first
A silver table, beautifully wrought,
Whilome the property of th' immortal Cadmus;
And then he fill'd a beauteous golden cup
Up to the brim with sweet and fragrant wine;
But Œdipus, when with angry eyes he saw
The ornaments belonging to his sire
Now set before him, felt a mighty rage,
Which glow'd within his breast, and straightway pour'd
The bitterest curses forth on both his sons,
(Nor were they by the Fury all unheard,)
Praying that they might never share in peace
The treasures of their father, but for ever
With one another strive in arms and war.
And Cæcilius the orator who came from Cale Acte, in his treatise on History, says that Agathocles the Great, when displaying his golden drinking-cups to his companions, said that he had got all these from the earthenware cups which he had previously made. And in Sophocles, in the Larissæans, Acrisius had a great many drinking-cups; where the tragedian speaks as follows:—
And he proclaims to strangers from all quartersAnd Posidonius, in the twenty-sixth book of his Histories, says that Lysimachus the Babylonian, having invited Himerus to a banquet (who was tyrant not only over the people of Babylon, but also over the citizens of Seleucia), with three hundred of his companions, after the tables were removed, gave every one of the three hundred a silver cup, weighing four mince; and when he had made a libation, e pledged them all at once, and gave them the cups to carry away with them. And Anticlides the Athenian, in the sixteenth book of his Returns, speaking of Gra, who, with other kings, first led a colony into the island of Lesbos, and saying that those colonists had received an answer from the oracle, bidding them, while sailing, throw a virgin into the sea, as an offering to Neptune, proceeds as follows:—“And some people, who treat of the history and affairs of Methymna, relate a fable [p. 736] about the virgin who was thrown into the sea; and say that one of the leaders was in love with her, whose name was Enalus, and that he dived down, wishing to save the damsel; and that then both of them, being hidden by the waves, disappeared. But that in the course of time, when Methymna had now become populous, Enalus appeared again, and related what had happened, and how it had happened; and said that the damsel was still abiding among the Nereids, and that he himself had become the superintendent of Neptune's horses; but that a great wave having been cast on the shore, he had swam with it, and so come to land: and he had in his hand a goblet made of gold, of such wondrous workmanship that the golden goblets which they had, when compared with his, looked no better than brass.”
A mighty contest, promising among them
Goblets well wrought in brass, and beauteous vases
Inlaid with gold, and silver drinking-cups,
Full twice threescore in number, fair to see.
And in former times the possession of drinking-cups was reckoned a very honourable thing. Accordingly, Achilles had a very superb cup as a sort of heirloom:—
But, mindful of the gods, Achilles wentAnd Priam, when offering ransom for his son, amid all his most beautiful treasures especially offers a very exquisitely wrought cup. And Jupiter himself, on the occasion of the birth of Hercules, thinks a drinking-cup a gift worthy to be given to Alcmena; which he, having likened himself to Amphitryon, presents to her:—
To the rich coffer in his shady tent,
(There lay the presents of the royal dame;)
From thence he took a bowl of antique frame,
Which never man had stain'd with ruddy wine,
Nor raised in offerings to the pow'rs divine,
But Peleus' son; and Peleus' son to none
Had raised in offerings but to Jove alone.3
And she received the gift, and on the bowlAnd Stesichorus says that the sun sails over the whole ocean in a bowl; in which also Hercules passed over the sea, on the occasion of his going to fetch the cows of Geryon. We are acquainted, too, with the cup of Bathycles the Arcadian, which Bathycles left behind him as a prize of wisdom to him who should be pronounced the best of those who were called the wise men. And a great many people have handled the cup of Nestor; [p. 737] for many have written books about it. And drinking-cups were favourites even among the Gods; at all events—
Admiring gazed with much delighted soul.
They pledged each other in their golden cups.4But it is a mark of a gentleman to be moderate in his use of wine, not drinking too greedily, nor drinking large draughts without drawing one's breath, after the fashion of the Thra- cians; but to mingle conversation with his cups, as a sort of wholesome medicine.
And the ancients affixed a great value to such goblets as had any story engraved upon them; and in the art of engraving cups in this manner, a high reputation was enjoyed by Cimon and Athenocles. They used also drinking-cups inlaid with precious stones. And Menander, somewhere or other, speaks of drinking-cups turned by the turning-lathe, and chased; and Antiphanes says—
And others drain with eager lips the cup,And Nicomachus says to some one—
Full of the juice of ancient wine, o'ershadow'd
With sparkling foam,—the golden-wrought rich cup,
Which circled round they raised: one long, deep draught
They drain, and raise the bottom to the skies.
O you, who . . . . . and vomit golden . . .And Philippides says—
Could you but see the well-prepared cups,And Parmenio, in his letter to Alexander, summing up the spoils of the Persians, says, “The weight of goblets of gold is seventy-three Babylonian talents, and fifty-two mitæ.5 The weight of goblets inlaid with precious stones, is fifty-six Babylonian talents, and thirty-four minæ.”
All made of gold, my Trophimus; by heaven,
They are magnificent! I stood amazed
When I beheld them first. Then there were also
Large silver cups, and jugs larger than I.
And the custom was, to put the water into the cup first, and the wine afterwards. Accordingly, Xenophanes says— [p. 738]
And never let a man a goblet take,And Anacreon says—
And first pour in the wine; but let the water
Come first, and after that, then add the wine.
Bring me water -bring me wine,And before either of them Hesiod had said—
Quick, O boy; and bring, besides,
Garlands, rich with varied flowers;
And fill the cup, that I may not
Engage in hopeless strife with love.
Pour in three measures of the limpid stream,And Theophrastus says—“The ancient fashion of the mixture of wine was quite opposite to the way in which it is managed at the present day; for they were not accustomed to pour the water on the wine, but the wine on the water, in order, when drinking, not to have their liquor too strong, and in order also, when they had drunk to satiety, to have less desire for more. And they also consumed a good deal of this liquor, mixed as it was, in the game of the cottabus.”
Pure from an everflowing spring; and then
Add a fourth cup of sacred rosy wine.
Now of carvers of goblets the following men had a high reputation,—Athenocles, Crates, Stratonicus, Myrmecides the Milesian, Callicrates the Lacedæmonian, and Mys; by which last artist we have seen a Heraclean cup, having most beautifully wrought on it the capture of Troy, and bearing also this inscription—
The sketch was by Parrhasius,—by Mys
The workmanship; and now I represent
The lofty Troy, which great Achilles took.
Now among the Cretans, the epithet κλεινὸς, illustrious, is often given to the objects of one's affection. And it is a matter of great desire among them to carry off beautiful boys; and among them it is considered discreditable to a beautiful boy not to have a lover. And the name given to the boys who are carried off in that manner is παρασταθέντες. And they give to the boy who has been carried off a robe, and an ox, and a drinking-cup. And the robe they wear even when they are become old, in order to show that they have been κλεινοί.
You see that when men drink, they then are rich;[p. 739] For amusing oneself with wine exalts, and cherishes, and elevates the mind, since it inflames and arouses the foul, and fills it with lofty thoughts, as Pindar says—
They do whate'er they please,—they gain their actions,
They're happy themselves, and they assist their friends.
When the sad, laborious caresAnd then he goes on—
Flee from the weary hearts of men,
And in the wide, expansive ocean
Of golden wealth we all set sail,
Floating towards the treacherous shore.
E'en he who is poor, is rich when he
Has fill'd his soul with rosy wine;
And he who's rich. . . .
Beneath the glad dominion of the vine.
There is a kind of drinking-cup also called ancyla, or curved; a kind especially useful for the play of the cottabus. Cratinus says—
'Tis death to drink of wine when water's mix'd:And Bacchylides says—
But she took equal shares, two choes full
Of unmix'd wine, in a large ancyla:
And calling on her dear Corinthian lover
By name, threw in his honour a cottabus.
When she does throw to the youths a cottabusAnd it is with reference to this ancyla that we understand the expression of Aeschylus—
From her ancyla, stretching her white arm forth.
The cottabus of th' ancyla (ἀγκυλήτους κοττάβους).Spears are also called ἀγκύλητα, or curved; and also μεσάγκυλα, held by a string in the middle. There is also the expression ἀπ᾽ ἀγκύλης, which means, from the right hand. And the cup is called ἀγκύλη, from the fact that the right hand is curved, in throwing the cottabus from it. For it was a matter to which great attention was paid by the ancients—namely, that of throwing the cottabus dexterously and gracefully. And men in general prided themselves more on their dexterity in this than in throwing the javelin skilfully. And this got its name from the manner in which the hand was brandished in throwing the cottabus, when they threw it elegantly and dexterously into the cottabium. And they also built rooms especially designed for this sport.
In Timachides there is also a kind of drinking-cup mentioned, called the æacis. [p. 740] There is another kind also, called the ἄκατος,or boat, being shaped like a boat. Epicrates says—
Throw down th' acatia,(using here the diminutive form,)
and take insteadAmong the Cyprians there is also a kind of cup called the aotus, as Pamphilus tells us: and Philetas says, this is a cup which has no ears (ὤτους). There is also a kind of cup called aroclum, which is mentioned by Nicander the Colophonian.
The larger goblets; and the old woman lead
Straight to the cup; . . . the younger maiden . . . .
. . . . . . . fill it; have your oar
All ready, loose the cables, bend the sails.
The cup called ἄλεισον, is the same as that called δέπας. Homer, in his Odyssey, speaking of Pisistratus, says—
In a rich golden cup he pour'd the wine;6and proceeding, he says, in the same manner—
To each a portion of the feast he bore,and presently afterwards he says—
And held the golden goblet (ἄλεισον) foaming o'er;
And gave the goblet (δέπας) to Ulysses' son.And, accordingly, Asclepiades the Myrlean says—“The δέπας appears to me to have been much of the same shape as the φιάλη. For men make libations with it. Accordingly, Homer says,—
The cup which Peleus' sonAnd it is called δέπας, either because it is given to all (δίδοται πᾶσι) who wish to make libations, or who wish to drink; or because it has two ears (δύο ὦπας), for ὦπες must be the same as ὦτα. And it has the name of ἄλεισον, either from being very smooth (ἄγαν λεῖον), or because the liquor is collected (ἁλίζεται） in it. And that it had two ears is plain—
Had raised in offerings to Jove alone.
High in his hands he rear'd the golden bowlBut when he applies the word ἀμφικύπελλον to it, he means nothing more than ἀμφίκυρτον curved on both sides.” But Silenus interprets the word ἀμφικύπελλον to mean devoid of ears, while others say that ἀμφὶ here is equivalent to περὶ, and that it means a cup which you may put to your mouth all round, at any part of it. But Parthenius says that it [p. 741] means that the ears are curved (περικεκυρτῶσθαι), for that is synonymous with κυρτός. But Anicetus says that the κύπελλον is a kind of cup (φίαλη), and that the word ἀμφικύπελλον is equivalent to ὑπερφίαλον, that is to say, superb and magnificent; unless, indeed, any one chooses to interpret the word ἄλεισον as something very highly ornamented, and therefore not at all smooth (α,λεῖον). And Pisander says, Hercules gave Telamon a cup (ἄλεισον) as the prize of his preeminent valour in the expedition against Troy.
By both its ears.
There is also a kind of cup called the horn of Amalthea, and another called ἐνιαυτὸς, or the year. There is also a kind of cup made of wood, called ἄμφωτις, which Philetas says that the countrymen use, who milk their cattle into it, and then drink the milk. There is also a kind of drinking called ἄμυστις, when any one drinks a long draught without taking breath and without winking (μὴ μύσαντα). And they give the same name to the goblets from which it is easy to drink in this manner. And they also use a verb (ἐκμυστίζω) for drinking without taking breath, as Plato the comic poet says—
And opening a fair cask of fragrant wine,And they also drank the ἄμυστις draught to an accompaniment of music; the melody being measured out according to the quickness of the time; as Ameipsias says—
He pours it straight into the hollow cup;
And then he drank it sheer and not disturb'd,
And drain'd it at one draught (ἐξεμύστισε).
Gentle musician, let that dulcet strain
Proceed; and, while I drink this luscious draught,
Play you a tune; then you shall drink yourself.
For mortal man has no great wants on earth,
Except to love and eat;-and you're too stingy.
There is also a kind of cup called Antigonis, from the name of king Antigonus: like the Seleucis from kin Seleucus; and the Prusis, from king Prusias. There is also a kind of cup known in Crete, and called anaphæa, which they use for hot drinks. There is also a kind of cup called aryballus. This kind of cup is wider at the bottom, and contracted at to like a purse when it is drawn together; and, indeed, some people call purses ἀρύβαλλοι, from their resemblance to this kind of cup. Aristophanes says, in his Knights— [p. 742]
He pour'd upon his headAnd the aryballus is not very different from the arystichus, being derived from the verbs ἀρύτω and βάλλω; they also call a jug ἄρυστις. Sophocles says—
Ambrosia from a holy cup (ἀρύβαλλος).
You are most accursed of all women,There is also a city of the Ionians called arystis. There is another kind of cup called argyris, which is not necessarily made of silver. Anaxilas says—
Who come to supper with your ἀρύστεις.
And drinking out of golden argyrides.
Then batiacium, labronius, tragelaphus, pristis, are all names of different kinds of cups. The batiaca is a Persian goblet. And among the letters of the great Alexander to the Satraps of Asia there is inserted one letter in which the following passage occurs:—“There are three batiacæ of silver gilt, and a hundred and seventy-six silver condya; and of these last thirty-three are gilt. There is also one silver tigisites, and thirty-two silver-gilt mystri. There is one silver vegetable dish, and one highly wrought wine-stand of silver ornamented in a barbaric style. There are other small cups from every country, and of every kind of fashion, to the number of twenty-nine: and other small-sized cups called rhyta, adbatia, and Lycurgi, all gilt, and incense-burners and spoons.” There is a cup used by the Alexandrians named bessa, wider in the lower parts, and narrow above.
There is also a kind of cup called baucalis: and this, too, is chiefly used in Alexandria, as Sopater the parodist says—
A baucalis, with four rings mark'd on it.And in another passage he says—
'Tis sweet for men to drink (καταβαυκαλίσαι）And the men in Alexandria, it is said, have a way of working crystal, forming it often into various shapes of goblets, and imitating in this material every sort of earthenware cup which is imported from any possible country. And they say that Lysippus the statuary, wishing to gratify Cassander, when he was founding the colony of Cassandria, and when he [p. 743] conceived the ambition of inventing some peculiar kind of utensil in earthenware, on account of the extraordinary quantity of Mendean wine which was exported from the city, took a great deal of pains with that study, and brought Cassander a great number of cups of every imaginable fashion, all made of earthenware, and taking a part of the pattern of each, thus made one goblet of a design of his own.
Cups of the juice by bees afforded,
At early dawn, when parch'd by thirst,
Caused by too much wine overnight.
There is also a kind of cup called bicus. Xenophon, in the first book of his Anabasis, says:—"And Cyrus sent him a number of goblets (βίκους) of wine half full; and it is a cup of a flat shallow shape, like a φιάλη, according to the description given of it by Pollux the Parian. There is another kind of cup called the bombylius; a sort of Rhodian Thericlean cup; concerning the shape of which Socrates says,—“Those who drink out of the phiale as much as they please will very soon give over; but those who drink out of a bombylius drink by small drops.” There is also an animal of the same name. There is also a kind of drinking-cup called the bromias, in form like the larger kind of scyphus.
There is another kind called the lettered cup, having writing engraved round it. Alexis says—
A. Shall I describe to you the appearance firstAnd we have seen a lettered cup of this kind lying at Capua in Campania, in the temple of Diana; covered with writing taken from the poems of Homer, and beautifully engraved; having the verses inlaid in golden characters, like the drinking-cup of Nestor. And Achæus the tragic poet, in his Omphale, himself also represents the Satyrs speaking in the following manner about a lettered drinking-cup—
O' the cup you speak of? Know, then, it was round;
Exceeding small; old, sadly broken too
About the ears; and all around the brim
Were carved letters.
B. Were there those nineteen
Engraved in gold,—To Jupiter the Saviour?7
A. Those, and no others.
And the god's cup long since has call'd me,But in this passage we want the final v which ought to have ended the word. Since all the ancients used the omicron not only with the power which it has now, but also when they meant to indicate the diphthong ει they wrote it by o only. And they did the same when they wished to write the vowel ε, whether it is sounded by itself, or when they wish to indicate the diphthong ει by the addition of iota. And accordingly, in the above-cited verses, the Satyrs wrote the final syllable of the genitive case διονύσου with ο only; as being short to engrave: so that we are in these lines to understand the final upsilon, so as to make the whole word διονύσου. And the Dorians called sigma san; for the musicians, as Aristoxenus often tells us, used to avoid saying sigma whenever they could, because it was a hard-sounding letter, and unsuited to the flute; but they were fond of using the letter rho, because of the ease of pronouncing it. And the horses which have the letter ς branded on them, they call samphoras. Aristophanes, in his Clouds, says—
Showing this writing,—delta, then iota,
The third letter was omega, then nu,
[p. 744] Then u came next, and after that a sigma
And omicron were not deficient.
Neither you, nor the carriage-horse, nor samphoras.And Pindar says—
Before long series of songs were heard,And Eubulus also, in his Neottis, speaks of a lettered cup as being called by that identical name, saying—
And the ill-sounding san from out men's mouths.
A. Above all things I hate a letter'd cup,
Since he, my son, the time he went away,
Had such a cup with him.
B. There are many like it.
There is a kind of cup also called gyala. Philetas, in his Miscellanies, says that the Megarians call their cups gyalæ. And Parthenius, the pupil of Dionysius, in the first book of his Discussions upon Words found in the Historians, says—“The gyala is a kind of drinking-cup, as Marsyas the priest of Hercules writes, where he says, 'Whenever the king comes into the city, a man meets him having a cup (γυάλην） full of wine; and the king takes it, and pours a libation from it.'”
There is another sort of cup called the deinus. And that this is the name of a cup we are assured by Dionysius of Sinope, in his Female Saviour, where he gives a catalogue [p. 745] of the names of cups, and mentions this among them, speak- ing as follows—
And as for all the kinds of drinking-cups,And Cleanthes the philosopher, in his book on Interpretation, says, that the cups called the Thericlean, and that called the Deinias, are both named from the original makers of them. And Seleucus, saying that the deinus is a kind of cup, quotes some lines of Stratis, from his Medea—
Lady, all fair to see,—dicotyli,
Tricotyli besides, the mighty deinus,
Which holds an entire measure, and the cymbion
The scyphus and the rhytum; on all these
The old woman keeps her eyes, and minds nought else.
Dost know, O Creon, what the upper partAnd Archedicus, in his Man in Error, introducing a servant speaking of some courtesans, says—
Of your head doth resemble? I can tell you:
'Tis like a deinus turned upside down.
A. I lately introduced a hook-nosed woman,The deinus is also the name of a kind of dance, as Apollophanes tells us in his Dalis, where he says—
Her name Nicostrata; but surnamed also
Scotodeina, since (at least that is the story)
She stole a silver deinus in the dark.
B. A terrible thing (δεινὸν), by Jove; a terrible thing!
A strange thing (δεινὸν) is this deinus and calathiscus.And Telesilla the Argive calls a threshing-floor also δεῖνος. And the Cyrenæans give the same name to a foot-tub, as Philetas tells us in his Attic Miscellanies.
There is also a kind of drinking-cup called δέπαστρον. Silenus and Clitarchus, in their Dialects, say that this is a name given to drinking-cups among the Clitorians; but Antimachus the Colophonian, in the fifth book of his Thebais, says— And carefully they all commands obey'd Which wise Adrastus laid on them. They took A silver goblet, and they pour'd therein Water, and honey pure, compounding deftly; And quickly then they all distributed The cups (δέπαστπα) among the princes of the Greeks, Who there were feasting; and from a golden jug They pour'd them wine for due libations. And in another place he says—
Let others bring the bowl of solid silver,[p. 746] And immediately afterwards he says—
Or golden cups (δέπαστρα), which in my halls are stored.
And golden cups (δέπαστρα), and a pure untouch'd vessel
Of honey sweet, which will be beat for him.
There is also a kind of cup called δακτυλωτὸν, with finger-like handles; and it is called so by Ion, in the Agamemnon—
And you shall have a gift worth running for,But by this expression Epigenes understands merely having two ears, into which a person could put his fingers on each side. Others, again, explain it as meaning, having figures like fingers engraved all round it; or having small projections like the Sidonian cups;—or, again, some interpret the word as meaning merely smooth. But when he says, untouched by fire, that has the same meaning as Homer's phrase—
A finger handled cup, not touch'd by fire,
The mighty prize once given by Pelias,
And by swift Castor won.
And for the fifth he gave a double bowl,for he fancied that this meant a drinking-cup, while it was in reality a large flat vessel made of brass in the form of a caldron, suitable to receive cold water. And he has spoken of the dactylotus cup, as if it were a goblet that had a hollow place all round the inside of it, so as to be taken hold of inside by the fingers of the drinkers. And some say that the cup which has never been touched by fire means a cup of horn; for that that is not worked by the agency of fire. And perhaps a man might call a φιάλη a drinking-cup by a metaphorical use of the word.” But Philemon, in his treatise on Attic Nouns and Attic Dialects, under the word καλπὶς says, "The dactylotus cup is the same as the two-headed cup into [p. 747] which a person can insert his fingers on both sides. But some say that it is one which has figures in the shape of fingers carved all round it."
Which fire had never touch'd;
There is also the elephant; and this was the name of a kind of cup, as we are told by Damoxenus, in the Man who laments himself—
A. If that is not enough, here is the boyAnd Epinicus also mentions this cup, in his Supposititious Damsels; and I will quote his testimony when I come to speak of the rhytum.
Bringing the elephant.
B. In God's name tell me,
What beast is that?
A. 'Tis a mighty cup,
Pregnant with double springs of rosy wine,
And able to contain three ample measures;
The work of Alcon. When I was at Cypseli,
Adæus pledged me in this selfsame cup.
There is another kind of cup called the Ephebus. And Philemon the Athenian, in his treatise on Attic Nouns and Attic Dialects, says that this cup is also called the embasicoitas; but Stephanus the comic poet, in his Friend of the Lacedæmonians, says—
Sos. The king then pledged him in a certain village.
B. A wondrous thing. What can you mean? Is this
A kind of goblet?
Sos. No; I mean a village
B. Why, my whole thoughts were borne
Off to the Rhodian cups, O Sosia,
And to those heavy bowls they call ephebi.
There are also some cups which are called ἡδυποτίδες. “These,” says Lynceus the Samian, "were made by the Rhodians in emulation of the Thericlean goblets which were in use at Athens. But as the Athenians, on account of the great weight of metal employed in them, only made this shape for the use of the richer classes, the Rhodians made theirs so light that they were able to put these ornaments within the reach even of the poor. And Epigenes mentions them, in his Heroine, in these words—
A psycter, and a cyathus, and cymbia,And Sermus, in the fifth book of his Delias, says that there is [p. 748] among the offerings at Delos a golden hedypotis, the gift of Echenica, a woman of the country, whom he mentions also, in his eighth book. And Cratinus the younger says, using the diminutive form,—
Four rhyta, and three hedypotides,
A silver strainer, too.
And Archephon had twelve ἡδυπότια.
There was another kind of cup called the Herculeum. Pisander, in the second book of his Herculead, says that the cup in which Hercules sailed across the ocean belonged to the Sun; and that Hercules received it from Oceanus for that purpose. But, perhaps, as the hero was fond of large cups, the poets and historians jesting because of the great size of this one, invented the fable of his having gone to sea in a cup. But Panyasis, in the first book of his Herculead, says that Hercules obtained the cup of the Sun from Nereus, and sailed even to Erythea in it. And we have said before that Hercules was one of the inordinate drinkers. And that the sun was borne on towards his setting in a cup, Stesichorus tells us, where he says—
And then the Sun, great Hyperion's offspring,And Antimachus speaks thus—
Embarked in his golden cup, that he
Might cross the ocean's wide expanse, and come
To the deep foundations of immortal Night;
To his fond mother, and his virgin bride,
And his dear children. And the son of Jove
Came to the grove
Shaded with laurels and with bays.
And then the most illustrious ErytheaAnd Aeschylus, in his Daughters of the Sun, says—
Sent the Sun forth in a convenient cup.
There in the west is found the golden cup,
Great Vulcan's work, your father's property,
In which he's borne along his rapid course
O'er the dark waters of the boundless sea.
When, his work done, he flies before dark Night,
Borne on her black-horsed chariot.
And Mimnermus, in his Nannus, says that the Sun when asleep is borne round to the east, lying on a golden bed which was made for this express purpose by Vulcan; by which enigmatical statement he indicates the hollow form of the cup; and he speaks thus—
For the Sun labours every day, nor everBut Theolytus, in the second book of his Annals, says that the Sun crosses the sea in a cup, and that the first person who invented this statement was the author of the poem called the Battle of the Titans. And Pherecydes, in the third book of his Histories, having previously spoken about the ocean, adds—“But Hercules drew his bow against him, as if he meant to shoot him: and the Sun bade him desist, and so he, being afraid, did desist. And in return for his forbearance, the Sun gave him the golden cup in which he himself used to travel with his horses when he has set, going all night across the ocean to the east, where he again rises. And so then Hercules went in this cup to Erythea. And when he was at sea, Oceanus, to tempt him, appeared to him in visible form, tossing his cup about in the waves; and he then was on the point of shooting Oceanus; but Oceanus being frightened desired him to forbear.”
Do he or his fleet steeds know pleasing rest
From that bright hour when the rosy Morn,
Leaving her ocean-bed, mounts up to heaven.
[p. 749] For all across the sea, a lovely bed
Of precious gold, the work of Vulcan's hands,
Conveys the god; passing on rapid wings
Along the water, while he sleeps therein,
From the bright region of th' Hesperides,
To th' Ethiopian shore, where his swift car
And fiery horses wait within their stalls
Till bright Aurora comes again and opes
Her rosy portals. Then Hyperion's son
Ascends again his swift untiring car.
There is also a cup of the name of ethanion. Hellanicus, in his account of the History and Manners of the Egyptians, writes thus—“In the houses of the Egyptians are found a brazen φιάλη, and a brazen κύαθος, and a brazen ἠθάνιον.” There is another kind called hemitomus; a sort of cup in use among the Athenians, so called from its shape and it is mentioned by Pamphilus, in his Dialects.
Then there is the cup called the thericlean cup; this kind is depressed at the sides, sufficiently deep, having short ears, as being of the class of cup called κύλιξ.8 And, perhaps, it is out of a thericlean cup that Alexis, in his Hesione, represents Hercules to be drinking, when he speaks thus— [p. 750]
And when he had, though scarcely, come t' himself,And that the thericlean cup belongs to the class κύλιξ is plainly stated by Theophrastus, in his History of Plants. For speaking of the turpentine-tree, be says—“And thericlean cups (κύλικες θηρίκλειοι) are turned of this wood, in such a manner that no one can distinguish them from earthenware ones.” And Thericles the Corinthian is said to have been the first maker of this kind of cup, and he was a potter originally, and it is after him that they have their name; and he lived about the same time as Aristophanes the comic poet. And Theopompus speaks of this cup, in his Nemea, where he says—
He begg'd a cup of wine (κύλικα), and when he'd got it,
He drank down frequent draughts, and drain'd it well;
And, as the proverb says, the man sometimes
Is quite a bladder, and sometimes a sack.
A. Come hither you, you faithful child of Thericles,But Cleanthes, in his treatise on Interpretation, says—“And as for all these inventions, and whatever others there are of the same kind, such as the thericlean cup, the deinias, the iphicratis, it is quite plain that these, by their very names, indicate their inventors. And the same appears to be the case even now. And if they fail to do so, the name must have changed its meaning a little. But, as has been said before, one cannot in every case trust to a name.” But others state that the thericlean cup has its name from the skins of wild beasts (θηρίων) being carved on it. And Pamphilus of Alexandria says that it is so called from the fact of Bacchus disturbing the beasts (τοὺς θῆρας) by pouring libations out of these cups over them. [p. 751]
You noble shape, and what name shall we give you
Are you a looking-glass of nature? If
You were but full, then I could wish for nothing
Beyond your presence. Come then—
B. How I hate you,
You old Theolyta.
A. Old dost thou call me, friend?
B. What can I call you else? but hither come,
Let me embrace you; come to your fellow-servant:
Is it not so?
A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . you try me.
B. See here I pledge you in fair friendship's cup.
A. And when you've drunk your fill, then hand the cup
Over to me the first.
And Antiphanes mentions this kind of cup, in his Similitudes, saying—
And when they had done supper, (for I wishAnd Eubulus, in his Dolon, says—
To put all things that happen'd in the interval
Together,) then the thericlean cup
Of Jove the Saviour was introduced,
Full of the luscious drops which o'er the sea
Came from the isle of the delicious drinks,
The sea-girt Lesbos, full, and foaming up,
And each one in his right hand gladly seized it.
I never drain'd a cup more carefully,And, in his Dice-players, he says—
For I did make the earthen cask more clean
Than Thericles did make his well-turn'd cups
E'en in his youth.
And then they drain'd the valiant cup ycleptAnd Ararus, or Eubulus, whichever it was who was the author of the Campylion, says—
The thericlean; foaming o'er the brim,
With Lacedæmonian lip, loud sounding
As if 'twere full of pebbles, dark in colour,
A beauteous circle, with a narrow bottom,
Sparkling and brilliant, beautifully wash'd,
All crown'd with ivy; and the while they call'd
On the great name of Jove the Saviour.
O potter's earth, you whom great ThericlesAnd Alexis, in his Horseman, says—
Once fashion'd, widening out the circling depth
Of your large hollow sides; right well must you
Have known the natures and the hearts of women,
That they are not well pleased with scanty cups.
There is, besides, a thericlean cup,And in his Little Horse he says—
Having a golden wreath of ivy round it,
Carved on it, not appended.
He drank a thericlean cup of unmix'd wine,
Right full, and foaming o'er the brim.
But Timæus, in the twenty-eighth book of his History, calls the cup thericlea, writing thus:—“There was man of the name of Polyxenus who was appointed one of the ambassadors from Tauromenium, and he returned having received several other presents from Nicodemus, and also a cup of the kind called thericlea.” And Adæus, in his treatise [p. 752] on Descriptions, considers that the thericleum and the car- chesium are the same. But that they are different is plainly shown by Callixenus, who, in his Account of Alexandria and its customs, says—“And some people marched in the procession, bearing thericlea (and he uses the masculine form θηρικλείους), and others bearing carchesia.” And what kind of cup the carchesium was, shall be explained in due time. There is also another kind called the thericlean bowl (θηρίκλειος κρατὴρ), which is mentioned by Alexis, in his Cycnus—
And in the midst a thericlean bowlMenander also has used the form θηρίκλειος as feminine, in his Fanatic Woman, when he says—
Resplendent stood; full of old clear white wine,
And foaming to the brim. I took it empty,
And wiped it round, and made it shine, and placed it
Firm on its base, and crown'd it round with branches
Of Bacchus' favourite ivy.
And being moderately drunk, he tookAnd in his Begging Priest he says—
And drain'd the thericleum (τὴν θηρίκλειον).
Drinking a thericleum of three pints.And Deoxippus, in his Miser, says—
A. I want now the large thericlean cup (τῆς θηρικλείου τῆς μεγάλης).And Polemo, in the first book of his treatise on the Acropolis at Athens, has used the word in the neuter gender, saying— “Neoptolemus offered up some golden thericlean cups (τὰ θηρίκλεια) wrought on foundations of wood.”
B. I know it well.
A. Likewise the Rhodian cups;
For when I've pour'd the liquor into them,
I always seem to drink it with most pleasure.
And Apollodorus of Gela, in his Philadelphi, or the Man who killed himself by Starvation, says—
Then there were robes of fine embroidery,And Aristophon, in his Philonides, says—
And silver plate, and very skilful chasers
Who ornament the thericlean cups,
And many other noble bowls besides.
Therefore my master very lately tookAnd Theophilus, in his Bœotia, says—
The well-turn'd orb of a thericlean cup,
Full foaming to the brim with luscious wine,
Mix'd half-and-half, a most luxurious draught,
[p. 753] And gave it me as a reward for virtue;
I think because of my tried honesty;
And then, by steeping me completely in it,
He set me free.
He mixes beautifully a large cupAnd, in his Prœtides, he says—
Of earthenware, of thericlean fashion,
Holding four pints, and foaming o'er the brim;
Not Autocles himself, by earth I swear,
Could in his hand more gracefully have borne it.
And bring a thericlean cup, which holdsThere is also a cup called the Isthmian cup: and Pamphilus, in his treatise on Names, says that this is a name given to a certain kind of cup by the inhabitants of Cyprus.
More than four pints, and's sacred to good fortune.
There is also a kind of vessel called cadus; which Simmias states to be a kind of cup, quoting this verse of Anacreon—
I breakfasted on one small piece of cheesecake,And Epigenes, in his Little Monument, says—
And drank a cadus full of wine.
A. Craters, and cadi, olkia, and crunea.And Hedylus, in his Epigrams, says—
B. Are these crunea?
A. To be sure these are,
Luteria, too. But why need I name each
For you yourself shall see them.
B. Do you say
That the great monarch's son, Pixodarus,
Has come to this our land?
Let us then drink; perhaps among our cupsAnd in another place he says—
We may on some new wise and merry plan
With all good fortune light. Come, soak me well
In cups (κάδοις) of Chian wine, and say to me,
“Come, sport and drink, good Hedylus;” I hate
To live an empty life, debarr'd from wine.
From morn till night, and then from night till morn,[p. 754] But Clitarchus, in his treatise on Dialects, says that the Ionians call an earthenware cask κάδος. And Herodotus, in his third book, speaks of a cask (κάδος) of palm wine.
The thirsty Pasisocles sits and drinks,
In monstrous goblets (κάδοις), holding quite four quarts,
And then departs whatever way he pleases.
But midst his cups he sports more mirthfully,
And is much stronger than Sicelides.
How his wit sparkles I Follow his example,
And ever as you write, my friend, drink too.
There is also the καδίσκος Philemon, in his treatise before mentioned, says that this too is a species of cup. And it is a vessel in which they place the Ctesian Jupiters, as Anticlides says, in his Book on Omens, where he writes,— “The statuettes of Jupiter Ctesius ought to be erected in this manner. One ought to place a new cadiscus with two ears . . .—and crown the ears with white wool; and on the right shoulder, and on the forehead . . . . and put on it what you find there, and pour ambrosia over it. But ambrosia is compounded of pure water, and oil, and all kinds of fruits; and these you must pour over.” Stratis the comic poet also mentions the cadiscus, in his Lemnomeda, where he says—
The wine of Mercury, which some draw forth
From a large jug, and some from a cadiscus,
Mix'd with pure water, half-and-half.
There is also the cantharus. Now, that this is the name of a kind of boat is well known. And that there is a kind of cup also called by this name we find from Ameipsias, in his Men Playing at the Cottabus, or Madness, where he says—
Bring here the vinegar cruets, and canthari.And Alexis, in his Creation (the sentence refers to some one drinking in a wine-shop), says—
And then I saw Hermaiscus turning overAnd Eubulus, who often mentions this cup by name, in his Pamphilus, says—
One of these mighty canthari, and near him
There lay a blanket, and his well-fill'd wallet.
But I (for opposite the house there wasAnd in another place he says—
A wine-shop recently establish'd)
There watch'd the damsel's nurse; and bade the vintner
Mix me a measure of wine worth an obol,
And set before me a full-sized cantharus.
How dry and empty is this cantharus![p. 755] And Xenarchus, in his Priapus, says this—
And again, in another place-
Soon as she took it, she did drink it up,—
How much d'ye think? a most enormous draught;
And drain'd the cantharus completely dry.
Pour, boy, no longer in the silver tankard,And Epigenes, in his Heroine, says—
But let us have again recourse to the deep.
Pour, boy, I bid you, in the cantharus,
Pour quick, by Jove, aye, by the Cantharus,9 pour.
But now they do no longer canthari make,
At least not large ones; but small shallow cups
Are come in fashion, and they call them neater,
As if they drank the cups, and not the wine.
And Sosicrates, in his Philadelphi, says—
A gentle breeze mocking the curling waves,And Phrynichus, in his Revellers, says–
Sciron's fair daughter, gently on its course
Brought with a noiseless foot the cantharus;
here cantharus evidently means a boat.
And then Chærestratus, in his own abode,And Nicostratus, in his Calumniator, says—
Working with modest zeal, did weep each day
A hundred canthari well fill'd with wine.
A. Is it a ship of twenty banks of oars,And Menander, in his Captain of a Ship, says—
Or a swan, or a cantharus? For when
I have learnt that, I then shall be prepared
Myself t' encounter everything.
B. It is
A cycnocantharus, an animal
Compounded carefully of each.
A. Leaving the salt depths of the Aegean sea,And a few lines afterwards he says—
Theophilus has come to us, O Strato.
How seasonably now do I say your son
Is in a prosperous and good condition,
And so's that golden cantharus.
B. What cantharus?
A. Your vessel.
B. You say my ship is safe?And Polemo, in his treatise on Painters, addressed to Antigonus, says—"At Athens, at the marriage of Pirithous, [p. 756] Hippeus made a wine jug and goblet of stone, inlaying its edges with gold. And he provided also couches of pinewood placed on the ground, adorned with coverlets of every sort, and for drinking cups there were canthari made of earthenware. And moreover, the lamp which was suspended from the roof, had a number of lights all kept distinct from one another. And that this kind of cup got its name originally from Cantharus a potter, who invented it, Philetærus tells us in his Achilles—
A. Indeed I do,
That gallant ship which Callicles did build,
And which the Thurian Euphranor steer'd.
Peleus—but Peleus10 is a potter's name,And that cantharus is also the name of a piece of female ornament, we may gather from Antiphanes in his Bœotia.
The name of some dry withered lamp-maker,
Known too as Cantharus, exceeding poor,
Far other than a king, by Jove.
There is also a kind of cup called carchesium. Callixenus the Rhodian, in' his History of the Affairs and Customs of Alexandria, says that it is a cup of an oblong shape, slightly contracted in the middle, having ears which reach down to the bottom. And indeed, the carchesium is a tolerably oblong cup, and perhaps it has its name from its being stretched upwards. But the carchesium is an extremely old description of cup; if at least it is true that Jupiter, when he had gained the affections of Alcmena, gave her one as a love gift, as Pherecydes relates in his second book, and Herodorus of Heraclea tells the same story. But Asclepiades the Myrlean says that this cup derives its name from some one of the parts of the equipment of a ship. For the lower part of the mast is called the pterna, which goes down into the socket; and the middle of the mast is called the neck; and towards the upper part it is called carchesium. And the carchesium has yards running out on each side, and in it there is placed what is called the breastplate, being four-cornered on all sides, except just at the bottom and at the top. Both of which extend a little outwards in a straight line. And above the breastplate is a part which is called the distaff, running up to a great height, and being sharp-pointed. And Sappho also speaks of the carchesia, where she says— [p. 757]
And they all had well-fill'd carchesia,And Sophocles, in his Tyro, says—
And out of them they pour'd libations, wishing
All manner of good fortune to the bridegroom.
And they were at the table in the middle,saying that the dragons came up to the table, and took up a position between the meats and the carchesia, or cups of wine. For it was the fashion among the ancients to place upon the table goblets containing mixed wine; as Homer also represents the tables in his time. And the carchesium was named so from having on it rough masses like millet (κεγχροειδὴς), and the α is by enallage instead of ε, καρχήσιον for κερχήσιον. On which account Homer calls those who are overcome by thirst καρ- χαλέους. And Charon of Lampsacus, in his Annals, says that among the Lacedæmonians there is still shown the very same cup which was given by Jupiter to Alcmena, when he took upon himself the likeness of Amphitryon. There is another kind of cup called calpium, a sort of Erythræan goblet, as Pamphilus says; and I imagine it is the same as the one called scaphium.
Between the dishes and carchesia;
There is another kind of cup called celebe. And this description of drinking-cup is mentioned by Anacreon, where he says—
Come, O boy, and bring me nowBut it is uncertain what description of cup it is, or whether every cup is not called celebe, because one pours libations into it (ἀπὸ τοῦ χέειν λοιβὴν),or from one's pouring libations (λείβειν). And the verb λείβω is applied habitually to every sort of liquid, from which also the word λέβης is derived. But Silenus and Clitarchus say that celebe is a name given to drinking-cups by the Aeolians. But Pamphilus says that the celebe is the same cup which is also called thermopotis, a cup to drink warm water from. And Nicander the Colophonian, in his Dialects, says that the celebe is a vessel used by the shepherds in which they preserve honey. For Anti- machus the Colophonian, in the fifth book of his Thebais, says— [p. 758]
A celebe, that I may drink
A long deep draught, and draw no breath.
It will ten measures of water hold,
And five of mighty Chian wine.
He bade the heralds bear to them a bladderAnd in a subsequent passage he says—
Fill'd with dark wine, and the most choice of all,
The celebea in his house which lay,
Fill'd with pure honey.
But taking up a mighty celebeumAnd again he says—
In both his hands, well filled with richest honey,
Which in great store he had most excellent.
And golden cups of wine, and then besides,And in this passage he very evidently speaks of the celebeum as some kind of vessel distinct from a drinking-cup, since he has already mentioned drinking-cups under the title of δέπαστρα. And Theocritus the Syracusan, in his Female Witches, says—
A celebeum yet untouch'd by man,
Full of pure honey, his most choice of treasures.
And crown this celebeum with the wool,And Euphorion says—
Well dyed in scarlet, of the fleecy sheep.
Or whether you from any other streamAnd Anacreon says—
Have fill'd your celebe with limpid water.
And the attendant pour'd forth luscious wile,But Dionysius, surnamed the Slender, explaining the poem of Theodoridas, which is addressed to Love, says that celebe is a name given to a kind of upstanding cup, something like the prusias and the thericleum.
Holding a celebe of goodly size.
There is also the horn. It is said that the first men drank out of the horns of oxen; from which circumstance Bacchus often figured with horns on his head, and is moreover called a bull by many of the poets. And at Cyzicus there is a statue of him with a bull's head. But that men drank out of horns (κέρατα) is plain from the fact that to this very day, when men mix water with wine, they say that they κερᾶσαι (mix it). And the vessel in which the wine is mixed is called κρατὴρ, from the fact of the water being mingled (συγκιρνᾶσθαι) in it, as if the word were κερατὴρ, from the drink being poured εἰς τὸ κέρας (into the horn); and even to this day the fashion of making horns into cups con- tinues: but some people call these cups rhyta. And many [p. 759] of the poets represent the ancients as drinking out of horns. Pindar, speaking of the Centaurs, says—
After those monsters fierceAnd Xenophon, in the seventh book of his Anabasis, giving an account of the banquet which was given by the Thracian Seuthes, writes thus: “But when Xenophon, with his companions, arrived at Seuthes's palace, first of all they embraced one another, and then, according to the Thracian fashion, they were presented with horns of wine.” And in his sixth book he says, when he is speaking of the Paphlagonians, “And they supped lying on couches made of leaves, and they drank out of cups made of horn.” And Aeschylus, in his Perrhæbi, represents the Perrhæbi as using horns for cups, in the following lines:—
Learnt the invincible strength of luscious wine;
Then with a sudden fury,
With mighty hands they threw the snow-white milk
Down from the board,
And of their own accord
Drank away their senses in the silver-mounted horns.
With silver-mounted horns,And Sophocles, in his Pandora, says—
Fitted with mouthpieces of rich-wrought gold.
And when a man has drain'd the golden cup,And Hermippus, in his Fates, says—
She, pressing it beneath her tender arm,
Returns it to him full.
Do you now know the thing you ought to do?And Lycurgus the orator, in his Oration against Demades, says that Philip the king pledged those men whom he loved in a horn. And Theopompus, in the second book of his history of the Affairs and Actions of Philip, says that the kings of the Pæonians, as the oxen in their countries have enormous horns, so large as to contain three or four choes of wine, make drinking-cups of them, covering over the brims with silver or with gold. And Philoxenus of Cythera, in his poem entitled The Supper, says—
Give not that cup to me; but from this horn
Give me but once more now to drink a draught.
He then the sacred drink of nectar quaff'dAnd the Athenians made also silver goblets in the shape of [p. 760] horns, and drank out of them. And one may ascertain that by seeing the articles mentioned in writing among the list of confiscated goods on the pillar which lies in the Acropolis, which contains the sacred offerings—“There is also a silver horn drinking-cup, very solid.”
From the gold-mounted brims of th' ample horns,
And then they all did drink awhile.
There is also the cernus. This is a vessel made of earthenware, having many little cup-like figures fastened to it, in which are white poppies, wheat-ears, grains of barley, peas, pulse, vetches, and lentils. And he who carries it, like the man who carries the mystic fan, eats of these things, as Ammonius relates in the third book of his treatise on Altars and Sacrifices.
There is also the cup called the cissybium. This is a cup with but one handle, as Philemon says. And Neoptolemus the Parian, in the third book of his Dialects, says that this word is used by Euripides in the Andromache, to signify a cup made of ivy (κίσσινον）—
And all the crowd of shepherds flock'd together,For, says he, the cissybium is mentioned in a rustic assembly, where it is most natural that the cups should be made of wood. But Clitarchus says that the Aeolians called the cup which is elsewhere called scyphus, cissybium. And Marsyas says that it is a wooden cup, the same as the κύπελλον. But Eumolpus says that it is a species of cup which perhaps (says he) was originally made of the wood of the ivy. But Nicander the Colophonian, in the first book of his History of Aetolia, writes thus:—"In the sacred festival of Jupiter Didymæus they pour libations from leaves of ivy (κισσοῦ), from which circumstance the ancient cups are called cissybia. Homer says—
One bearing a huge ivy bowl of milk,
Refreshing medicine of weary toil;
Another brought the juice o' the purple vine.
Holding a cup (κισσύβιον) of dark rich-colour'd wine.And Asclepiades the Myrlean, in his essay on the cup called Nestoris, says, “No one of the men in the city or of the men of moderate fortune used to use the σκύφος or the κισσύβιον, but only the swineherds and the shepherds, and the men in the fields. Polyphemus used the cissybium, and Eumæus the other kind.” But Callimachus seems to make a blunder in the use of these names, speaking of an intimate friend of his [p. 761] who was entertained with him at a banquet by Pollis the Athenian, for he says—
For he abhorr'd to drink at one long draughtFor, as he here calls the same cup both κισσύβιον and ἄλεισον, he does not preserve the accurate distinction between the names. And any one may conjecture that the κισσύβιον was originally made by the shepherds out of the wood of the ivy (κισσός). But some derive it from the verb χεύμαι, used in the same sense as χωρέω, to contain; as it occurs in the fol- lowing line:—
Th' amystis loved in Thrace, not drawing breath:
And soberly preferr'd a small cissybium:
And when for the third time the cup (ἄλεισον) went round,
I thus addressed him . . . . . .
This threshold shall contain (χείσεται) them both.And the hole of the serpent is also called χείη, as containing the animal; and they also give the name of κήθιον, that is, χήτιον, to the box which holds the dice. And Dionysius of Samos, in his treatise on the Cyclic Poets, calls the cup which Homer calls κισσύβιον, κύμβιον, writing thus—“And Ulysses, when he saw him acting thus, having filled a κύμβιον with wine, gave it to him to drink.”
There is also the ciborium. Hegesander the Delphian says that Euphorion the poet, when supping with the Prytanis, when the Prytanis exhibited to him some ciboria, which appeared to be made in a most exquisite and costly manner, . . . . . . . . And when the cup had gone round pretty often, he, having drunk very hard and being intoxicated, took one of the ciboria and defiled it. And Didymus says that it is a kind of drinking-cup; and perhaps it may be the same as that which is called scyphium, which derives its name from being contracted to a narrow space at the bottom, like the Egyptian ciboria.
There is also the condu, an Asiatic cup. (Menander, in his play entitled the Flatterer, says—
Then, too, there is in Cappadocia,And Hipparchus says, in his Men Saved,—
O Struthion, a noble golden cup,
Called condu, holding ten full cotyle.
A. Why do you so attend to this one soldier?And Nicomachus, in the first book of his treatise on the Egyptian Festivals, says—“But the condu is a Persian cup; and it was first introduced by Hermippus the astrologer.11. . . . . . . . . . . . on which account libations are poured out of it.” But Pancrates, in the first book of his Conchoreis, says—
He has no silver anywhere, I know well;
But at the most one small embroider'd carpet,
[p. 762] (And that is quite enough for him,) on which
Some Persian figures and preposterous shapes
Of Persian griffins, and such beasts, are work'd.
B Away with you, you wretch.
A. And then he has
A condu, a wine-cooler, and a cymbium.
But he first pour'd libations to the godsThere is also the cononius. Ister, the pupil of Callimachus, in the first book of his History of Ptolemais, the city in Egypt, writes thus:—"A pair of cups, called cononii, and a pair of therielean cups with golden covers.
From a large silver condu; then he rose,
And straight departed by another road.
There is also the cotylus. The cotylus is a cup with one handle, which is also mentioned by Alcæus. But Diodorus, in his book addressed to Lycophron, says that this cup is greatly used by the Sicyonians and Tarentines, and that it is like a deep luterium, and sometimes it has an ear. And Ion the Chian also mentions it, speaking of “a cotylus full of wine.”! And Hermippus, in his Gods, says—
He brought a cotylus first, a pledge for his neighbours.And Plato, in his Jupiter Afflicted, says—
He brings a cotylus.Aristophanes also, in his Babylonians, mentions the cotylus; and Eubulus, in his Ulysses, or the Panoptæ, says—
And then the priest utt'ring well-omen'd prayers,And Pamphilus says that it is a kind of cup, and peculiar to Bacchus. But Polemo, in his treatise on the Fleece of the Sheep sacrificed to Jupiter, says—“And after this he celebrates a sacrifice, and takes the sacred fleece out of its shrine, and distributes it among all those who have borne the cernus in the procession: and this is a vessel made of earthenware, having a number of little cups glued to it; and in these little [p. 763] cups there is put sage, and white poppies, and ears of wheat, and grains of barley, and peas, and pulse, and rye, and lentils, and beans, and vetches, and bruised figs, and chaff and oil, and honey, and milk, and wine, and pieces of unwashed sheep's-wool. And he who has carried this cernus eats of all these things, like the man who has carried the mystic fan.”
Stood in the midst, and in a gorgeous dress,
Pour'd a libation from the cotylus.
There is also the cotyle. Aristophanes, in his Cocalus, says—
And other women, more advanced in age,And Silenus, and Clitarchus, and also Zenodotus; say that it is a kind of κύλιξ, and say—
Into their stomachs pour'd, without restraint,
From good-sized cotylæ, dark Thasian wine,
The whole contents of a large earthen jar,
Urged by their mighty love for the dark wine.
And all around the corpse the black blood flow'd,And again—
As if pour'd out from some full cotyle.
There is many a slipAnd Simaristus says that it is a very small-sized cup which is called by this name; and Diodorus says that the poet has here called the cup by the name of cotyle, which is by others called cotylus, as where we find- πύρνον (bread) καὶ κοτύλην; and that it is not of the class κύλιξ, for that it has no handles, but that it is very like a deep luterium, and a kind of drinking cup (ποτηρίου); and that it is the same as that which by the Aetolians, and by some tribes of the Ionians, is called cotylus, which is like those which have been already described, except that it has only one ear: and Crates mentions it in his Sports, and Hermippus in his Gods. But the Athenians give the name of κοτύλη to a certain measure. Thucydides says—“They gave to each of them provisions for eight months, at the rate of a cotyla of water and two cotylæ of corn a-day.” Aristophanes, in his Proagon, says—
'Twixt the cup (κοτύλης) and the lip.
And having bought three chœnixes of meal,But Apollodorus says that it is a kind of cup, deep and hollow; and he says—“The ancients used to call everything that was hollow κοτύλη, as, for instance, the hollow of the hand; on which account we find the expression κοτολήρυτον [p. 764] αἷμα—meaning, blood in such quantities that it could be taken up in the hand. And there was a game called ἐγκοτύλη, in which those who are defeated make their hands hollow, and then take hold of the knees of those who have won the game and carry them.” And Diodorus, in his Italian Dialects, and Heraclitus (as Pamphilus says), relate that the cotyla is also called hemina, quoting the following passage of Epicharmus:—
All but one cotyla, he accounts for twenty.
And then to drink a double measure,And Sophron says—
Two heminæ of tepid water full,
Turn up the hemina, O boy.But Pherecrates calls it a cotylisca, in his Corianno, saying—
The cotylisca? By no means.And Aristophanes, in his Acharnians, uses a still more diminutive form, and says—
A cotyliscium (κοτυλίσκιον) with a broken lip.And even the hollow of the hip is called κοτύλη; and the excrescences on the feelers of the polypus are, by a slight extension of the word, called κοτυληδών. And Aeschylus, in his Edonians, has called cymbals also κότυλαι, saying—
And he makes music with his brazen κότυλαι.But Marsyas says that the bone of the hip is also called ἄλεισον and κύλιξ. And the sacred bowl of Bacchus is called κοτυλίσκος; and so are those goblets which the initiated use for their libations; as Nicander of Thyatira says, adducing the following passage from the Clouds of Aristophanes:—
Nor will I crown the cotyliscus.
There is also the cottabis. Harmodius of Lepreum, in his treatise on the Laws and Customs of Phigalea, going through the entertainments peculiar to different countries, writes as follows:—“When they have performed all these purificatory ceremonies, a small draught is offered to each person to drink in a cottabis of earthenware; and he who offers it says, 'May you sup well.'” But Hegesander the Delphian, in his Commentaries (the beginning of which is “In the best Form of Government”), says—“That which is called the cottabus has been introduced into entertainments, the Sicilians (as Dicæarchus relates) having been the first people to introduce it. And such great fondness was ex- [p. 765] hibited for this amusement, that men even introduced into entertainments contests, which were called cottabia games; and then cups of the form which appeared to be most suitable for such an exercise were made, called cottabide. And besides all this, rooms were built of a round figure, in order that all, the cottabus being placed in the middle might contest the victory, all being at an equal distance, and in similar situations. For they vied with one another, not only in throwing their liquor at the mark, but also in doing everything with elegance; for a man was bound to lean on his left elbow, and, making a circuit with his right hand, to throw his drops (τὴν λάταγα) over gently—for that was the name which they gave to the liquor which fell from the cup: so that some prided themselves more on playing elegantly at the cottabus than others did on their skill with the javelin.”
There is also the cratanium. But perhaps this is the same cup, under an ancient name, as that which is now called the craneum: accordingly, Polemo (or whoever it is who wrote the treatise on the Manners and Customs of the Greeks), speaking of the temple of the Metapontines which is at Olympia, writes as follows:—“The temple of the Metapontines, in which there are a hundred and thirty-two silver phialæ, and two silver wine-jars, and a silver apothystanium, and three gilt phialæ. The temple of the Byzantians, in which there is a figure of Triton, made of cypress-wood, holding a silver cratanium, a silver siren, two silver carchesia, a silver culix, a golden wine-jar, and two horns. But in the old temple of Juno, there are thirty silver phialæ, two silver cratania, a silver dish, a golden apothystanium, a golden crater (the offering of the Cyrenæans), and a silver batiacium.” There is also the crounea. Epigenes, in his Monument, says—
A. Crateres, cadi, holcia, crounea,There is the cyathis also. This is a vessel with a great resemblance to the cotyla. Sophron, in his play entitled the Buffoon, represents the women who profess to exhibit the goddess as present, as saying—
B. Are these crounea?
A. Yes, indeed these are.
Three sovereign antidotes for poison[p. 766]
Are buried in a single cyathis.
Then there is the κύλιξ. Pherecrates, in his Slave Tutor, says—
Now wash the κύλιξ out; I'll give you thenBut the κύλιξ is a drinking-cup made of earthenware, and it is so called from being made circular (ἀπὸ τοῦ κυλίεσθαι) by the potter's wheel; from which also the κυλικεῖον, the place in which the cups are stored up, gets its name, even when the cups put away in it are made of silver. There is also the verb κυλικηγορέω, derived from the same source, when any one makes an harangue over his cups But the Athenians also call a medicine chest κυλικὶς, because it is made round in a turning-lathe. And the κύλικες, both at Argos and at Athens, were in great repute; and Pindar mentions the Attic κύλικες in the following lines—
Some wine to drink: put o'er the cup a strainer,
And then pour in some wine.
O Thrasybulus, now I sendAnd richly-fill'd Athenian κύλικες.
This pair of pleasantly-meant odes
As an after-supper entertainment for you.
May it, I pray, be pleasing
To all the guests, and may it be a spur
To draw on cups of wine,
But the Argive κύλικες appear to have been of a different shape from the Athenian ones. At all events, they tapered towards a point at the brims, as Simonides of Amorgos says—
But this is taper-brimm'd (φοξίχειλος),that is to say, drawn up to a point towards the top; such as those which are called ἄμβικες. For they use the word φοξὸς in this sense, as Homer does when speaking of Thersites—
His head was sharp at top.And the word is equivalent to φαοξὸς,—it being perceived to be sharp (ὀξὺς) in the part where the eyes (τὰ φάη) are. And very exquisitely wrought κύλικες are made at Naucratis, the native place of our companion Athenæus. For some are in the form of phialæ, not made in a lathe, but formed by hand, and having four handles, and being widened considerably towards the bottom: (and there are a great many potters at Naucratis, from whom the gate nearest to the potteries (κεραμείων) is called the Ceramic gate:) and they are dyed in such a manner as to appear like silver. The [p. 767] Chian κύλικες also are highly extolled, which Hermippus mentions in his Soldiers—
And a Chian κύλιξ hung on a peg aloft.But Glaucon, in his Dialects, says that the inhabitants of Cyprus call the cotyle culix. And Hipponax, in his Synonymes, writes thus—“The aleisum, the poterium, the cupellum, the amphotis, the scyphus, the culix, the cothon, the carchesium, the phiale.” And Achæus of Eretria, in his Alcmæon, instead of κύλικες, has lengthened the word, and written κυλιχνίδες, in these lines—
But it is best to bring, as soon as possible,And Alcæus says—
Dark wine, and one large common bowl for all,
And some κυλιχνίδες besides
Let us at once sit down and drink our wine,And in his tenth Ode he says—
Why do we wait for lights? Our day is but
A finger's span. Bring forth large goblets (κύλιχναι) now
Of various sorts. For the kind liberal son
Of Jove and Semele gave rosy wine,
Which bids us all forget our griefs and cares;
So pour it forth, and mix in due proportion.
Drops of wine (λάταγες) fly from Teian culichnæ,showing, by this expression, that the κύλικες of Teos were exceedingly beautiful.
Pherecrates also says, in his Corianno—
A. For I am coming almost boil'd awayAnd that the women were in the habit of using large cups, Pherecrates himself expressly tells us in his Tyranny, where he says—
From the hot bath; my throat is parch'd and dry;
Give me some wine. I vow my mouth and all
My jaws are sticky with the heat.
B. Shall I
Then take the κυλίσκη, O damsel, now?
A. By no means, 'tis so small; and all my bile
Has been stirr'd up since I did drink from it,
Not long ago, some medicine. Take this cup
Of mine, 'tis larger, and fill that for me.
And then they bade the potter to prepare
Some goblets for the men, of broader shape,
Having no walls, but only a foundation,
And scarcely holding more than a mere shell.
More like to tasting cups; but for themselves
[p. 768] They order good deep κύλικες, good-sized,
Downright wine-carrying transports, wide and round,
Of delicate substance, swelling in the middle.
A crafty order: for with prudent foresight
They were providing how, without much notice,
They might procure the largest quantity
Of wine to drink themselves; and then when we
Reproach them that 'tis they who've drunk up everything,
They heap abuse on us, and swear that they,
Poor injured dears, have only drunk one cup,
Though their one's larger than a thousand common cups.
Then there are cymbia. These are a small hollow kind of cup, according to Simaristus. But Dorotheus says, “The cymbium is a kind of deep cup, upright, having no pedestal and no handles.” But Ptolemy the father of Aristonicus calls them “curved goblets.” And Nicander of Thyatira says that Theopompus, in his Mede, called a cup without handles cymbium. Philemon, in his Vision, says—
But when fair Rhode came and shook above youBut Dionysius of Samos, in the sixth book of his treatise on the Cyclic Poets, thinks that the κισσύβιον and the κύμβιον are the same. For he says that Ulysses, having filled a cymbium with unmixed wine, gave it to the Cyclops. But the cup mentioned in Homer, as having been given to him by Ulysses, is a good-sized cissybium; for if it had been a small cup, he, who was so enormous a monster, would not have been so quickly overcome by drunkenness, when he had only drunk it three times. And Demosthenes mentions the cymbium in his oration against Midias, saying that he was accompanied by rhyta and cymbia: and in his orations against Euergus and Mnesibulus. But Didymus the grammarian says that is a cup of an oblong shape, and narrow in figure, very like the shape of a boat. And Anaxandrides, in his Clowns, says—
A cymbium full of mighty unmix'd wine.
Perhaps large cups (ποτήρια) immoderately drain'd,And Alexis, in his Knight, says—
And cymbia full of strong unmixed wine,
Have bow'd your heads, and check'd your usual spirit.
A. Had then those cymbia the faces of damsels[p. 769]
Carved on them in pure gold?
B. Indeed they had.
A. Wretched am I, and wholly lost . . . .
But Eratosthenes, in his letter addressed to Ageton the Lacedæmonian, says, that the cymbium is a vessel of the shape of the cyathus, writing thus—“But these men marvel how a man who had not got a cyathus, but only a cymbium, had, besides that, also a phiale. Now it seems to me, that he had one for the use of men, but the other for the purpose of doing honour to the Gods. And at that time they never used the cyathus nor the cotyla. For they used to employ, in the sacrifices of the Gods, a crater, not made of silver nor inlaid with precious stones, but made of Coliad clay. And as often as they replenished this, pouring a libation to the Gods out of the phiale, they then poured out wine to all the company in order, bailing out the newly-mixed wine in a cymbium, as they do now among us at the phiditia. And if ever they wished to drink more, they also placed on the table beside them the cups called cotyli, which are the most beautiful of all cups, and the most convenient to drink out of. And these, too, were all made of the same earthenware.” But when Ephippus says, in his Ephebi—
Chæremon brings no culices to supper,he does not mean the tragic poet, but some namesake of his, who was either very fond of wine, or who had an evil reputation on some other account, as Antiochus of Alexandria says, in his treatise on the Poets, who are ridiculed by the comic writers of the Middle Comedy. For the circumstance of cymbia being introduced into entertainments, and being used to fight with in drunken quarrels, bears on each point. And Anaxandrides mentions him in his Nereids—
Nor did Euripides with cymbia fight,
Give him a choeus then of wine, O messmate,And Ephippus, in his Similitudes, or Obeliaphori, says—
And let him bring his cymbium, and be
A second Euripides to-day.
But it were well to learn the plays of Bacchus,And that the κύμβη is the name of a boat too we are shown by Sophocles, who, in his Andromeda, says—
And all the verses which Demophoon
Made upon Cotys; and, at supper-time,
To spout the eclogues of the wise Theorus.
* * * * * *
And let Euripides, that banquet-hunter,
Bring me his cymbia.
Come you on horseback hither, or in a boat (κύμβαισι)?[p. 770] And Apollodorus, in his Paphians, says there is a kind of drinking-cup called κύμβα.
Then there is the κύπελλον. Now, is this the same as the ἄλεισον and the δέπας, and different from them only in name
Then rising, all with goblets (κυπέλλοις) in their hands,Or was their form different also? For this kind has not the character of the amphicupellum, as the depas and aleison have, but is only of a curved form. For the κύπελλον is so called from its curved shape, as also is the ἀμφικύπελλον. Or is it so called as being in shape like a milk-pail (πέλλα), only contracted a little, so as to have an additional curve? And the word ἀμφικύπελλα is equivalent to ἀμφίκυρτα, being so called from its handles, because they are of a curved shape. For the poet calls this cup—
The peers and leaders of the Achaian bands
Hail'd their return.
Golden, two-handled.But Antimachus, in the fifth book of his Thebais, says—
And heralds, going round among the chiefs,And Silenus says, the κύπελλα are a kind of cup resembling the σκύφα, as Nicander the Colophonian says—
Gave each a golden cup (κύπελλον) with labour wrought.
The swineherd gave a goblet (κύπελλον) full to each.And Eumolpus says that it is a kind of cup, so called from its being of a curved shape (κυφόν.) But Simaristus says that this is a name given by the Cyprians to a cup with two handles, and by the Cretans to a kind of cup with two handles, and to another with four. And Philetas says that the Syracusans give the name of κύπελλον to the fragments of barley-cakes and loaves which are left on the tables. There is also the κύμβη. Philemon, in his Attic Dialect, calls it “a species of κύλιξ.” And Apollodorus, in his treatise on Etymologies, says, that the Paphians call a drinking-cup κύμβα.
Then there is the κώθων, which is mentioned by Xenophon, in the first book of his Cyropædia. But Critias, in his Constitution of the Lacedæmonians, writes as follows—“And other small things besides which belong to human life; such as the Lacedæmonian shoes, which are the best, and the Lacedæmonian garments, which are the most pleasant to wear, and the most useful. There is also the Lacedæmonian [p. 771] κώθων, which is a kind of drinking-cup most convenient when one is on an expedition, and the most easily carried in a knapsack. And the reason why it is so peculiarly well-suited to a soldier is, because a soldier often is forced to drink water which is not very clean; and, in the first place, this cup is not one in which it can be very easily seen what one is drinking; and, secondly, as its brim is rather curved inwards, it is likely to retain what is not quite clean in it.” And Polemo, in his work addressed to Adæus and Antigonus, says that the Lacedæmonians used to use vessels made of earthenware; and proceeds to say further—“And this was a very common practice among the ancients, such as is now adopted in some of the Greek tribes. At Argos, for instance, in the public banquets, and in Lacedæmon, they drink out of cups made of earthenware at the festivals, and in the feasts in honour of victory, and at the marriage-feasts of their maidens. But at other banquets and at their Phiditia12 they use small casks.” And Archilochus also mentions the cothon as a kind of cup, in his Elegies, where he says—
But come now, with your cothon in your hand,as if the κύλιξ were here called κώθων. Aristophanes, in his Knights, says—
Move o'er the benches of the speedy ship,
And lift the covers from the hollow casks,
And drain the rosy wine down to the dregs;
For while we're keeping such a guard as this,
We shan't be able to forego our wine;
They leapt into th' horse-transports gallantly,And Heniochus, in his Gorgons, says—
Buying cothones; but some bought instead
Garlic and onions.
Let a man give me wine to drink at once,And Theopompus, in his Female Soldiers, says—
Taking that capital servant of the throat,
The ample cothon—fire-wrought, and round,
Shall I, then, drink from out a wryneck'd cothon,[p. 772] And Alexis, in his Spinners, says—
Breaking my own neck in the hard attempt?
And then he hurl'd a four-pint cothon at me,And it is from this cup that they call those who drink a great deal of unmixed wine (ἀκράτον) as Hyperides does in his oration against Demosthenes. But Callixenus, in the fourth book of his History of Alexandria, giving an account of the procession of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and giving a catalogue of a number of drinking-cups, adds these words: “And two cothons, each holding two measures of wine.”
An ancient piece of plate, an heirloom too.
But with respect to drinking, (which from the name of this kind of cup is sometimes called in the verb κωθωνί- ζομαι, and in the substantive κωθωνισμὸς, that occasional drinking is good for the health is stated by Mnesitheus the Athenian physician, in his letter on the subject of Drinking (κωθωνισμὸς), where he speaks as follows: “It happens that those who drink a great quantity of unmixed wine at banquets often receive great injury from so doing, both in their bodies and minds; but still occasional hard drinking (κωθωνι- ζεσθαι) for some days appears to me to produce a certain purging of the body and a certain relaxation of the mind. For there are some little roughnesses on the surface, arising from daily banquets; now for getting rid of these there is no easier channel than the wine. But of all modes of purging, that which' is caused by hard drinking is the most advantageous; for then the body is as it were washed out by the wine; for the wine is both liquid and heating: but the wine which we secrete is harsh; accordingly, fullers use it as a cleanser when they are cleaning garments. But when you are drinking hard, you should guard against three things,— against drinking bad wine, against drinking unmixed wine, and against eating sweetmeats while you are drinking. And when you have had enough, then do not go to sleep, until you have had a vomit, moderate or copious as the case may be; and when you have vomited, then go to sleep after having taken a slight bath. And if you are not able to empty yourself sufficiently, then you must take a more copious bath, and lie down in the bath in exceedingly warm water.” But Polemo, in the fifth book of his treatise addressed to Antigonus and Adæus, says—“Bacchus being full grown, sitting [p. 773] on a rock, and on his left hand a satyr, bald, holding in his right hand a cothon of striped colours, with one handle.”
There is also the labronia. This is a species of Persian drinking-cup, so named from the eagerness (λαβρότης) with which people drink: and its shape is wide, and its size large, and it has large handles. Menander, in his Fisherman, says—
We are abundantly well off at this timeAnd in his Philadelphi he says—
For golden cylinders; and all those robes
From Persia, all those quaintly carved works,
Are now within, and richly-chased goblets,
Figures and faces variously carved,
Tragelaphi and labronia.
And now the drinking of healths began, and nowAnd Hipparchus, in his Thais, says— But this labronius is an omen now. O Hercules! it is a cup which weighs Of standard gold more than two hundred pieces. Just think, my friend, of this superb labronius. And Diphilus, in his Pithraustes, giving a catalogue of other kinds of cups, says—
Labroniæ, inlaid with precious stones,
Were set upon the board; and slaves stood round
With Persian fly-flappers.
A. The tragelaphus, and likewise the pristis,And Didymus says that it resembles the bombylium and the batiacium.
The batiace, and labronius too.
B. These seem to me to be the names of slaves.
A. By no means; they are all the names of cups;
And this lambronius is worth twenty pieces.
There is also the lacæna. And this is a kind of cup so called either from the potter, as the Attic vessels, usually are, or from the form which is usual in that district, on the same principle as the thericlean cups derive their name. Aristophanes, in his Daitaleis, says—
He gladly shared the Sybaritic feasts,
And drank the Chian wine from out the cups
Called the lacecnæ, with a cheerful look.
Then there is the lepaste. Some mark this word λεπαστη with an acute accent on the last syllable, like καλή; but some mark the penultima with an acute, as μεγάλη. And this kind of cup derived its name from those who spend a [p. 774] great deal of money on their drinking and intemperance, whom men call λάφυκται. Aristophanes, in his Peace, says—
What will you do, then, when you've drunkAnd it is from this word λεπαστὴ that the verb λάπτω comes, which means to swallow all at once, having a meaning just opposite to the bombylium; for the same author says, somewhere or other,—
One single lepaste full of new wine?
You've drunk up all my blood, O king, my master!which is as much as to say, you have utterly drained me. And in his Gerytades he says—
But there was then a festival: a slaveAnd Antiphanes, in his Aesculapius, says—
Went round, and brought us all a lepaste,
And pour'd in wine dark as the deep-blue sea;
but the poet means here to indicate the depth of the cup.
He took an agèd woman, who had beenPhilyllius, in his Auge, says—
A long time ill, sick of a ling'ring fever,
And bruising some small root, and putting it
Into a noble-sized lepaste there,
He made her drink it all, to cure her sickness.
For she was always in the companyAnd Theopompus says in his Pamphila—
Of young men, who did nothing else but drink;
And with a lot of aged women too,
Who always do delight in good-sized cups.
A sponge, a dish, a feather; and, besides,And in his Mede he says—
A stout lepaste, which, when full, they drain
To the Good Deity, raising loud his praises,
As chirps a grasshopper upon a tree.
Callimachus, 'tis stated, once did charmBut Amerias says that the ladle with which the wine is poured into the cups is called lepaste; but Aristophanes and Apollodorus say that it is a sort of cup of the class κύλιξ. Pherecrates, in his Crapatalli, says— [p. 775]
The Grecian heroes by some promised gain,
When he was seeking for their aid and friendship.
The only thing he fail'd in was th' attempt
To gain the poor, thin-bodied Rhadamanthus
Lysander with a cothon, ere he gave him
A full lepaste.
If there was one of the spectators thirsty,But Nicander the Colophonian says that "the Dolopans give the name of λεπαστὴ to the κύλιξ; but Lycophron, in the ninth book of his treatise on Comedy, quoting this passage of Pherecrates, himself also asserts the lepaste to be kind of κύλιξ; but Moschus, in his Interpretation of Rhodiat Words, says that it is an earthenware vessel resembling those which are called ptomatides, but flatter and wider: but Artemidorus, the pupil of Aristophanes, says that it is some sort of drinking-cup. And Apollophanes, in his Cretans, says—
He would a full lepaste seize, and drain
The whole contents.
And the lepasta, fill'd with fragrant wine,And Theopompus says in his Pamphila—
Shall fill me with delight the livelong day.
A stout lepaste, which, well-fill'd with wine,But Nicander of Thyatira says it is a larger kind of κύλιξ, quoting the expressions of Teleclides out of his Prytanes—
They drain in honour of the Happy Deity,
Rousing the village with their noise and clamour.
To drink sweet wine from a sweet-smelling lepaste.And Hermippus, in his Fates, says—
If anything should happen to me when
I've drain'd this promising lepaste, then
I give my whole possessions unto Bacchus.
There is also the loibasium. This, too, is a κύλιξ, as Clearchus and Nicander of Thyatira say; with which they pour libations of oil over the sacred offerings and victims. Spondeum is the name given to the cup out of which they pour libations of wine. And he says that the spondea are also called loibides, by Antimachus of Colophon. Then we have the lesbium. This also is a kind of cup, as Hedylus proves in his Epigrams, where he says—
Callistion, contending against menThere is also the luterium. Epigenes, in his Tomb, where he gives a catalogue of cups of different kinds, says— [p. 776]
In drinking, ('tis a marvellous thing, but true,)
When fasting, drank three whole choeis of wine;
And now her cup, fashion'd of purple glass,
Adorn'd with bands fragrant of luscious wine,
She offers here to you, O Paphian queen.
Preserve this first, that so your walls may bear
The spoils of all the love excited so.
Craters, cadi, holcia, cruneia—
Are they cruneia? aye, and luteria.
But why need I each separate article
Enumerate? for you yourself shall see them.
There is also the Lyciurges. The things which are so called are some kinds of phialæ, which derive their name from Lycon who made them, just as the Cononii are the cups made by Conon. Now, Demosthenes, in his Oration for the Crown, mentions Lycon; and he does so again, in his oration against Timotheus for an assault, where he says—“Two lyciurgeis Phialæ.” And in his speech against Timotheus he also says —“He gives Phormion, with the money, also two lyciurgeis Phialæ to put away.” And Didymus the grammarian says that these are cups made by Lycius. And this Lycius was a Bœotian by birth, of the town of Eleutheræ, a son of Myron the sculptor, as Polemo relates in the first book of his treatise on the Acropolis of Athens; but the grammarian is ignorant that one could never find such a formation of a word as that derived from proper names, but only from cities or nations. For Aristophanes, in his Peace, says—
The vessel is a ναξιονργὴς cantharus;that is to say, made at Naxos. And Critias, in his Constitution of the Lacedæmonians, has the expressions, κλίνη μιλησιουργὴς, and again, δίφρος λησιουργής: and κλινὴ χιουργὴς, and τράπεξα ρηνιοεργής: made at Miletus, or Chios, or Rhenea. And Herodotus, in his seventh book, speaks of “two spears, λυκοεργέες.” But perhaps we ought to read λυκιοεργέες in Herodotus as we do in Demosthenes, so as to understand by the word things made in Lycia.
There is also the mele. This is a name given to some cups which are mentioned by Anaxippus in his Well, where he says—
And you, Syriscus, now this mele take,There is also the metaniptrum. This is the kind of cup which is offered after dinner, when men have washed their hands. Autiphanes, in his Lamp, says—
And bring it to her tomb—do you understand
Then pour a due libation.
The metaniptrum of the Fortunate God;[p. 777] And Diphilus, in his Sappho, says—
Feasting, libations, and applause . . .
Archilochus, receive this metaniptris,But some people say that this is rather the name of the draught itself which was given to the guests after they had washed their hands; as, for instance, Seleucus says in his Dialects. But Callias, in his Cyclops, says—
The brimming cup of Jupiter the Saviour.
Receive this metaniptris of Hygeia.And Philetærus, in his Aesculapius, says—
He raised aloft a mighty metaniptris,And Philoxenus the Dithyrambic poet, in his ode entitled the Supper, pledging some one after they have washed their hands, says—
Brimfull of wine, in equal portions mix'd,
Repeating all the tine Hygeia's name.
Do you, my friend, receiveAnd Antiphanes, in his Torch, says—
This metaniptris full of wine,
The sweetly dewy gift of Bacchus.
Bromius gives this placid joy,
To lead all men to happiness.
Our table shall now be this barley cake,Nicostratus, in his Woman returning Love, says—
And then this metaniptrum of Good Fortune . . . . .
Pour over him the metaniptrum of health.
Then there is the mastus. Apollodorus the Cyrenæan, as Pamphilus says, states that this is a name given to drinking-cups by the Paphians. There are also the mathalides. Blæsus, in his Saturn, says—
Pour out for us now seven mathalidesAnd Pamphilus says, “Perhaps this is a kind of cup, or is it only a measure like the cyathus” But Diodorus calls it a cup of the κύλιξ class.
Full of sweet wine.
There is also the manes, which is a species of cup. Nicon, in his Harp-player, says—
And some seasonably then exclaim'd,And both Didymus and Pamphilus have quoted these iambics. [p. 778] But that is also called manes which stands upon the cottabus, on which they throw the drops of wine in that game, which Sophocles, in his Salmoneus, called the brazen head, saying—
My fellow-countryman, I drink to you;
And in his hand he held an earthenware manes,
Of ample size, well able to contain
Five cotylæ of wine; and I received it.
This is a contest, and a noise of kisses;And Antiphanes, in his Birthday of Venus, says—
I give a prize to him who gains the victory
In elegantly throwing the cottabus,
And striking with just aim the brazen head.
A. I then will show you how: whoever throwsAnd Hermippus says in his Fates—
The cottabus direct against the scale (πλώστιγξ,）
So as to make it fall—
B. What scale? Do you
Mean this small dish which here is placed above?
A. That is the scale-he is the conqueror.
B. How shall a man know this?
A. Why, if he throw
So as to reach it barely, it will fall
Upon the manes,13 and there'll be great noise.
B. Does manes, then, watch o'er the cottabus,
As if he were a slave?
You'll see, says he, a cottabus rod.
Wallowing round among the chaff;
But the manes hears no drops,—
And you the wretched scale may see
Lying by the garden gate,
And thrown away among the rubbish.
There is the Nestoris also. Now concerning the shape of the cup of Nestor, the poet speaks thus—
Next her white hand a spacious goblet brings,Now with reference to this passage a question is raised, what is the meaning of “glittering with golden studs:”—and again, what is meant by “the massy, sculptured vase four handles grace.” For Asclepiades the Myrlean, in his treatise on the Nestoris, says that the other cups have two handles. [p. 779] And again, how could any one give a representation of turtle- doves feeding around each of the handles? How also can he say, “On two firm bases stood the mighty bowl?” And this also is a very peculiar statement that he makes, that he could heave it with ease, “though all too great for men of lesser limb.” Now Asclepiades proposes all these difficulties, and especially raises the question about the studs, as to how we are to understand that they were fastened on. Now some say that golden studs must be fastened on a silver goblet from the outside, on the principles of embossing, as is mentioned in the case of the sceptre of Achilles—
A goblet sacred to the Pylian kings
From eldest times; the massy, sculptured vase,
Glittering with golden studs, four handles grace,
And curling vines, around each handle roll'd,
Support two turtle-doves emboss'd in gold.
On two firm bases stood the mighty bowl,
Lest the top weight should make it loosely roll:
A massy weight, yet heaved with ease by him,
Though all too great for men of lesser limb.
He spoke,—and, furious, hurl'd against the groundfor it is plain here that the studs were let into the sceptre, as clubs are strengthened with iron nails. He also says of the sword of Agamemnon—
His sceptre, starr'd with golden studs around;
A radiant baldric, o'er his shoulder tied,But Apelles the engraver, he says, showed us on some articles of Corinthian workmanship the way in which studs were put on. For there was a small projection raised up by the chisel, to form, as it were, the heads of the nails. And these studs are said by the poet to be fixed in, not because they are on the outside and are fixed by nails, but because they resemble nails driven through, and project a little on the outside, being above the rest of the surface.
Sustain'd the sword that glittered at his side:
Gold were the studs—a silver sheath encased
The shining blade.
And with respect to the handles, they tell us that this cup had indeed two handles above, like other cups; but that it had also two more on the middle of its convex surface, one on each side, of small size, resembling the Corinthia water- ewers. But Apelles explained the system of the four handles very artistically in the following manner. He said, tat from one root, as it were, which is attached to the bottom of the cup, there are diverging lines extending along each handle, at no great distance from each other: and these reach up to the brim of the cup, and even rise a little above it, and are at the greatest distance from each other at the point where they are furthest from the vessel itself; but at the lower extremity, where they join the rim, they are again united. And in this [p. 780] way there are four handles; but this kind of ornament is not seen in every cup, but only on some, and especially on those which are called seleucides. But with respect to the question raised about the two bases, how it can be said, “On two firm bases stood the mighty bowl,” some people explain that line thus:—that some cups have one bottom, the natural one, being wrought at the same time as, and of one piece with, the whole cup; as for instance, those which are called cymbia, and the phialæ, and others of the same shape as the phialæ. But some have two bottoms; as for instance, the egg-shaped cups called ooscyphia, and those called cantharia, and the seleucides, and the carchesia, and others of this kind. For they say that one of these bottoms is wrought of the same piece as the entire cup, and the other is attached to it, being sharp at the upper part, and broader towards the lower end, as a support for the cup; and this cup of Nestor's, they say, was of this fashion. But the poet may have represented this cup as having two bottoms; the one, that is to say, bearing the whole weight of the cup, and having an elevation proportionate to the height, in accordance, with its greater circumference; and the other bottom might be smaller in circumference, so as to be contained within the circumference of the larger circle, where the natural bottom of the cup becomes sharper; so that the whole cup should be supported on two bases. But Dionysius the Thracian is said to have made the cup called Nestor's, at Rhodes, all his pupils contributing silver for the work; of which Promethidas of Heraclea, explaining the way in which it was made on the system of Dionysius, says that it is a cup having its handles made side by side, as the ships with two prows have their prows made; and that turtle-doves are represented sitting on the handles; and that two small sticks, as it were, are placed under the cup as a support to it, running transversely across in a longitudinal direction, and that these are the two bottoms meant by Homer. And we may to this day see a cup of that fashion at Capua, a city of Campania, consecrated to Diana; and the Capuans assert that that is the identical cup which belonged to Nestor. And it is a silver cup, having on it the lines of Homer engraved in golden characters.
“But I,” said the Myrlean, "have this to say about [p. 781] the cup:—the ancients, who first brought men over to a more civilized system of life, believing that the world was spherical, and taking their ideas of form from the visible forms of the sun and moon which they beheld, and adapting these figures to their own use in the daily concerns of life, thought it right to make all their vessels and other articles of furniture resemble, in shape at least, the heaven which surrounds everything: on which account they made tables round; and so also they made the tripods which they dedicated to the Gods, and they also made their cakes round and marked with stars, which they also call moons. And this is the origin of their giving bread the name of ἄρτος, because of all figures the circle is the one which is the most complete (ἀπήρτισται), and it is a perfect figure. And accordingly they made a drinking-cup, being that which receives moist nourishment, circular, in imitation of the shape of the world. But the cup of Nestor has something peculiar about it, for it has stars on it, which the poet compares to studs, because the stars are as round as the studs, and are, as it were, fixed in the heaven; as also Aratus says of them—
There do they shine in heaven,—ornamentsBut the poet has expressed this very beautifully, attaching the golden studs to the main body of the silver cup, and so indicating the nature of the stars and of the heaven by the colour of the ornaments. For the heaven is like silver, and the stars resemble gold from their fiery colour.
Fix'd there for ever as the night comes round.
"So after the poet had represented the cup of Nestor as studded with stars, he then proceeds on to the most brilliant of the fixed stars, by contemplating which men form their conjectures of what is to happen to them in their lives. I mean the Pleiades. For when he says δύο δὲ πελειάδες were placed in gold around each handle, he does not mean the birds called πελειάδες, that is to say, turtle-doves; and those who think that he does use πελειάδες here as synonymous with περιστεραὶ are wrong. For Aristotle says expressly that the πελειὰς is one bird, and the περιστερὰ another. But the poet calls that constellation πελειάδες which at present w call πλειάδες; by the rising of which men regulate their swing and their reaping, and the beginning of their raising their crops, and their collection of them; as Hesiod says:— [p. 782]
When the seven daughters of the Libyan kingAnd Aratus says—
Rise in the heavens, then begin to mow;
And when they hide their heads, then plough the ground.
Their size is small, their light but moderate,And accordingly it is with great appropriateness that the poet has represented the Pleiades, who indicate the time of the generation and approach to perfection of the fruits of the earth, as forming parts of the ornaments of the cup of that wise prince Nestor. For this vessel was intended to contain any kind of food, whether solid or liquid; on which account he also says that the turtle-doves bring ambrosia to Jupiter:—
Yet are they famous over all the world;
At early dawn and late at eve they roll,
Jove regulating all their tranquil motions;
He has ordain'd them to give signs to men,
When winter, and when summer too begins,—
What is the time for ploughing, what for sowing.
No bird of air, nor dove of trembling wing,For we must not think here that it is really the birds called turtle-doves which bring ambrosia to Jupiter, which is the opinion of many; for that were inconsistent with the majesty of Jupiter; but the daughters of Atlas, turned into the constellation of Pleiades or doves. For it is natural enough that they who indicate the appropriate seasons to the human race should also bring ambrosia to Jupiter, on which account also he distinguishes between them and other birds, saying—
That bears ambrosia to th' ethereal king,
But shuns these rocks.
No bird of air, nor dove of trembling wing;and that he considers the Pleiades as the most famous of all fixed stars is plain, from his having placed them in the first rank when giving a list of other constellations:—
There earth, there heaven, there ocean he design'd,—[p. 783] "But people in general have been deceived by fancying the πελειάδες here spoken of to be birds, first of all from the poetical form of the word, because of the insertion of the letter ε; and secondly, because they have taken the word τρήρωνες, 'trembling,' as an epithet only of doves; since, owing to its weakness, that is a very cautious bird; and when he calls it τρήρων, this word is derived from τρέω, and τρέω is the same as εὐλαβέομαι, to be cautious. But still there is a good deal of reason in attributing the same characteristic also to the Pleiades: for the fable is, that they are always fleeing from Orion, since their mother Pleione is constantly pursued by Orion.
Th' unwearied sun, the moon completely round,—
The starry lights, that heaven's high convex crown'd,—
The Pleiads, Hyads, with the Northern Team,
And great Orion's more refulgent beam;
To which, around the axle of the sky,
The Bear, revolving, points his golden eye;
Still shines exalted on th' ethereal plain,
Nor bathes his blazing forehead in the main,—
The Bear, whom trusting rustics call the Wain.
"And the variation of the name, so that the Pleiades are called both πέλειαι and πελειάδες, occurs in many poets. First of all, Myro the Byzantian admirably caught the feeling of the Homeric poems, saying in her poem entitled Memory, that the Pleiades convey ambrosia to Jupiter. But Crates the critic, endeavouring to appropriate to himself the credit due to her, produces that assertion as his own. Simonides also has called the Pleiades πελειάδες, in the following lines:—
And may great Mercury, whose protecting pow'rHere he distinctly calls the Pleiades πελειάδες, for they it was who were the daughters of Atlas; as Pindar says—
Watches o'er contests, Maia's mighty son,
Grant you success. But Atlas was the sire
Of seven dark-hair'd daughters, beautiful,
Surpassing all the maidens upon earth,
And now in heaven they're call'd Peleiades.
And it is naturalFor, in the arrangement of the stars, Orion is not far from the Pleiades; from which circumstance has arise the fable about them, that they, with their mother Pleione, are always fleeing from Orion. But when he calls the Pleiades ὄριαι here, he means οὔριαι, only he has left out the v, because the Pleiades are close to the tail of the Bull. And Aechylus has spoken still more plainly, playing on their name on account of the resemblance of its sound, where he says—
That great Oarion should advance
Not far from the seven Pleiades, at the tail (ὀρίας).
The seven celebrated daughters ofFor he calls them here wingless on account of the similarity of the sound of their name to that of the birds πελειάδες And Myro herself also speaks in the same manner—
The mighty Atlas, much bewail'd with tears
[p. 784] Their father's heaven-supporting toil; where they
Now take the form of night-appearing visions,
The wingless Peleiades.
The mighty Jove was nourished long in Crete,And Simmias, in his Gorge, says—
Nor yet had any of the heav'nly beings
E'er recognised their king; meanwhile he grew
In all his limbs; and him the trembling doves
Cherish'd, while hidden in the holy cave,
Bringing him, from the distant streams of ocean,
Divine ambrosia: and a mighty eagle,
Incessant drawing with his curved beak
Nectar from out the rock, triumphant brought
The son of Saturn's necessary drink.
Him, when the God of mighty voice had cast
His father Saturn from his unjust throne,
He made immortal, and in heaven placed.
And so, too, did he give the trembling doves (πελειάσιν）
Deserved honour; they who are to men
Winter's and summer's surest harbingers.
The swiftest ministers of air came near,And Posidippus, in his Asopia, says—
The quivering peleiades.
Nor do the evening cool πέλειαι set.But Lamprocles the Dithyrambic poet has also expressly and poetically said that the word πελειάδες is in every sense synonymous with περιστεραὶ, in the following lines—
And now you have your home in heaven,And the author of the poem called Astronomy, which is attributed to Hesiod, always calls the Pleiades πελειάδες, saying—
Showing your title with the winged doves.
Which mortals call Peleiades.And in another place he says—
And now the Peleiades of winter set.And in another passage we find—
Then the Peleiades do hide their heads;so that there is nothing at all improbable in the idea of Homer having lengthened the name πλειάδες by poetic licence into πελειάδες.
"Since, then, it is demonstrated that it is the Pleiades [p. 785] who were embossed on the goblet, we must understand that two were affixed to each handle, whether we choose to fancy that the damsels were represented under the form of birds or under human form;—at all events they were studded with stars: and as for the expression, “Around each there were golden peleiades,” we are not to understand that as meaning around each separate one; for that would make eight in number: but as each of the handles was divided into two sections, and as these again were united towards the bottom, the poet has used the word ἕκαστος, speaking as if there were four sections of handles; but if he had said ἑκάτερον, that would have applied to the fact of their again becoming united at the highest point which they respectively reach. And accordingly, when he says—
And curling vines, around each handle roll'd,we are by that to understand one Peleias to. each section of the handles. And he has called them δοιὰς, as being united to one another and grown together as it were. For the word δοιαὶ, signifies simply the number two, as in the passage—
Bear two Peleiades emboss'd in gold;
On two firm bases stood the mighty bowl;
Two attendants (δοιοὶ θεράπογτες):and it also at times intimates a natural connexion subsisting between the two things spoken of, as well as that they are two in number; as in these lines:—
There grew two (δοιοὶ) olives, closest of the grove,and accordingly this calculation will give altogether four Peleiades upon the handles.
With roots entwined and branches interwove,
Alike their leaves, but not alike they smiled
With sister fruits,—one fertile, one was wild:—
"And, then, when he adds this—
And curling vines, around each handle roll'd,we are to understand not two actual separate bases, nor indeed ought we to read ὑποπυθμένες as two words, like Dionysius the Thracian, but we ought to read it as one word, [p. 786] υποπυθμενες, in order to understand it with reference to the Peleiades, that there were four Peleiades on the handles, and two more ὑποπυθμένες, which is equivalent to ὑπὸ τῷ πυθμένι, that is to say, under the pedestal, as if the word were ὑποπυθ- μένιοι. So that the goblet is supported by two Peleiades which lie under the bottom, and in that way there are altogether six Pleiades in all, since that is the number which are seen, though they are said to be seven in number, as Aratus says—
Bear two Peleiades emboss'd in gold:
On two firm bases stood the mighty bowl;
They are indeed declared by mortal manAccordingly, what is seen in the stars the poet has very suitably described among the ornaments made on the occasion. And many fancy that the poet is here referring to Jupiter, when he says—
To be in number seven; yet no more
Than six have e'er been seen by mortal eyes.
Not that a star can e'er have disappear'd
Unnoticed from the pure expanse of heaven
Since we have heard of its existence; but
The number has been stated carelessly,
And therefore they are usually call'd seven.
No bird of air, nor dove of trembling wing,Meaning in reality, that one of the Pleiades was destroyed by the sharpness of the rocks and their smooth edge, and that another is substituted in her place by Jupiter for the sake of keeping the number undiminished. Expressing by the enigmatical figures of speech common to poets, that, though there are only six Pleiades seen, still their real number is not actually diminished; but there are said to be seven in number, and also the names of the seven are distinctly given.
That bears ambrosia to th' ethereal king,
But shuns these rocks. In vain she cuts the skies,
They fearful meet, and crush her as she flies.
But as for those people who contend that there is no appropriateness in embossing the Pleiades on this cup, as they are rather indicative of dry food, we must state that this kind of cup is calculated to receive both solid and liquid food; for κυκεὼν14 is made in it; and this is a kind of potion, having mixed in it cheese and meal; and the poet tells us [p. 787] that both these ingredients are stirred up (κυκωμένα) together and so drunk:—
The draught prescribed fair Hecamede prepares,
Arsinous' daughter, graced with golden hairs
(Whom to his aged arms a royal slave
Greece, as the prize of Nestor's wisdom, gave):
A table first with azure feet she placed,
Whose ample orb a brazen charger graced;
Honey, new press'd, the sacred flour of wheat,
And wholesome garlic crown'd the savoury treat
Next her white hand a spacious goblet brings,
A goblet sacred to the Pylian kings;
Temper'd in this, the nymph of form divine
Pours a large portion of the Pramnian wine;
With goats'-milk cheese a flavorous taste bestows,
And last with flour the smiling surface strows.
This for the wounded prince the dame prepares;
The cordial beverage reverend Nestor shares.
And as for the lines—
A massy weight, yet heav'd with ease by him,we are not to understand this as referring only to Machaon and Nestor, as some people think, who refer ὃς to Machaon, taking it as if it were ὁ, and say, ἄλλος, he is not speaking of Machaon and Nestor alone (for these two are drinking of the cup), for in that case he would have said ἕτερος. For ἕτερος is the proper word for the other of two, as in this line— οἴσετε δ᾽ ἄρν᾽ ἕτερον λευκὸν, ἑτέρην δὲ μέλαιναν,—
Though all too great for men of smaller limb;
And bring two lambs, one male, with snow-white fleece,Besides, Homer never uses ὃς for the demonstrative pronoun ὁ; but, on the contrary, he sometimes uses the demonatrative ὃ for the relative ὃς, as in the line—
The other black, who shall the breed increase.
There Sisyphus, who of all men that lived[p. 788] "But still, in this line, τις is wanting, for the sentence, when complete, should run—
Was the most crafty, held his safe abode.
"But Sosibius, the solver of questions, quoting the lines— γέρων out of the middle, we shall unite that to the beginning of the preceding line, after ἄλλος μὲν, and then we shall connect the words as before— [p. 789] accused the treasurers. And Ptolemy sent for them, and ordered them to come with their books, in which were the lists of those who received those stipends. And when they had arrived, the king took the books into his hands and looking into them himself, also asserted that Sosibius had received his money; making it out in this way:—These names were set down,—Soter, Sosigenes, Bion, Apollon, Dion; and the king, looking on these names, said—My excellent solver of difficulties, if you take σω from σωτὴρ, and σι from σωσιγένης, and the first syllable βι from βίων and the last syllable from 'απόλλωνος, you will find, on your own principles, that you have received your stipend. And you are caught in this way, not owing to the actions of others, but by your own feathers, as the incomparable Aeschylus says, since you yourself are always occupied about solutions of difficulties which are foreign to the subject in hand.”
There is the holmus also. This, too, is a drinking-cup, made in the fashion of a horn. Menesthenes, in the fourth book of his Politics, writes thus—“A twisted albatanes and a golden holmus. But the holmus is a cup wrought after the fashion of a horn, about a cubit in height.”
There is also the oxybaphum. Now common usage gives this name to the cruet that holds the vinegar; but it is also the name of a cup; and it is mentioned by Cratinus, in his Putina, in this way:—
How can a man now make him leave off thisBut that the oxybaphum is a kind of small κύλιξ, made of earthenware, Antiphanes proves plainly enough, in his Mystis, in the following words.15 There is a wine-bibbing old [p. 790] woman praising a large cup, and disparaging the oxybaphum as small. So when some one says to her—
Excessive drinking? I can tell a way;
For I will break his jugs and measures all,
And crush his casks as with a thunderbolt,
And all his other vessels which serve to drink:
Nor shall he have a single oxybaphum left,
Fit to hold wine.
Do you, then, drink;she answers—
There I will obey you.And also in the Babylonians of Aristophanes we hear of the oxybaphum as a drinking-cup, when Bacchus speaks of the demagogues at Athens, saying that they demanded of him two oxybapha when he was going away to trial. For we cannot think that they asked him for anything but cups. And the oxybaphum, which is put before the people who play at the cottabus, into which they pour their drops of wine, can be nothing else but a flat cup. Eubulus also, in his Mylothris, mentions the oxybaphum as a cup—
And, by the gods, the figure of the cup
Is quite inviting, worthy of the fame
Of this high festival; for have we not—
Have we not, and not long ago, I say,
Drunk out of earthenware oxybapha?
But may the gods, my son, give many blessings
To him who made this cup-a noble cup,
As to its beauty and its good capacity.
And besides, I measure out for drinking
An oxybaphum all round; and then he swore
The wine was nothing but pure vinegar,
And that the vinegar was wine, at least
Superior to the other.
There is the oinisteria too. The young men, when they are going to cut their hair, says Pamphilus, fill a large cup with wine, and bring it to Hercules; and they call this cup an oinisteria. And when they have poured a libation, they give it to the assembled people to drink. There is the ollix also. Pamphilus, in his Attic Words, describes this as a wooden cup.
There is also the panathenaicum. Posidonius the philosopher, in the thirty-sixth book of his History, mentions some cups called by this name, speaking thus—“There were also cups made of an onyx, and also of several precious stones joined together, holding about two cotylæ. And very large cups, called panathenaica, some holding two choes, and some even larger.” There is the proaron too. This was a wooden cup, into [p. 791] which the Athenians used to pour mixed wine. “In hollow proara,” says Pamphilus.
Then there is the pelica. Callistratus, in his Commentary on the Thracian Women of Cratinus, calls this a κύλιξ. But Crates, in the second book of his treatise on the Attic Dialect, writes thus:—“Choes, as we have already said, were called pelicæ. But the form of this vessel was it first like that of the panathenaica, when it was called pelica; but afterwards it was made of the same shape as the œnochoe, such as those are which are put on the table at festivals, which they formerly used to call olpæ, using them for infus- ing the wine, as Ion the Chian, in his Sons of Eurytus, says—
You make a noise, intemperately drawingBut now a vessel of that sort, which has been consecrated in some fashion or other, is placed on the table at festivals alone. And that which comes into every-day use has been altered in form, being now generally made like a ladle, and we call it choeus.” But Clitarchus says that the Corinthians, and Byzantians, and Cyprians call an oil-cruet, which is usually called lecythus, olpa; and the Thessalians call it prochous. But Seleucus says that the Bœotians call a κύλιξ pelichna; but Euphronius, in his Commentaries, says that they give this name to a choeus.
Superfluous wine from the large casks with olpæ.
There is the pella. This is a vessel resembling the scyphus, having a wider bottom, into which men used to milk the cattle. Homer says—
Thick as beneath some shepherd's thatch'd abode,But Hipponax calls this pellis; saying,—
The pails πέλλαι high foaming with a milky flood,
The buzzing flies, a persevering train,
Incessant swarm, and chased, return again.
Drinking from pellides; for there was notshowing, I imagine, very plainly that the pellis was not a drinking-cup, but that on this occasion they use it as one, from want of a regular culix. And in another place he says—
A culix there,—the slave had fallen down,
And broken it to pieces;
And they at different times from out the pellaBut Phœnix the Colophonian, in his Iambics, interprets this word as identical with the phiala; saying,— [p. 792]
Did drink; and then again Arete pledged them.
For Thales,—honestest of all the citizens,And in another part he says—
And, as they say, by far the best of men
Who at that time were living upon earth,—
Took up a golden pellis.
And with one hand he pours from out the pellis,But Clitarchus, in his Dialects, says that the Thessalians and Aeolians call the milk-pail pelleter; but that it is a drinking-cup which they call pella. But Philetas, in his Miscellanies, says that the Bœotians give the name of pelleter to a culix.
Weak as he was in all his limbs and fingers,
A sharp libation of sour vinegar,
Trembling, like age, by Boreas much shaken.
There is also the pentaploa. Philochorus mentions this, in the second book of his treatise on Attic Affairs. But Aristodemus, in the third book of his Commentary on Pindar, says that on the third day of the Scira, games are celebrated at Athens, in which the young men run races; and that they run, holding in their hands a branch of the vine loaded with fruit, which is called oschus. And they run from the temple of Bacchus to the temple of Minerva Sciras; and he who has gained the victory takes a cup of the species called pentaplous, and feasts with the rest of the runners. But the cup is called pentaplous, as containing five πέντε ingredients; inasmuch as it has in it wine, and honey, and cheese, and meal, and a little oil. There is the petachnum. This is a cup of a flat shape, which is mentioned by Alexis, in his Dropidas; and the passage has been already cited. And Aristophanes also mentions it in his Dramas, where he says—
And every one in-doors drinks out of petachna.
There is the plemochoe, too. This is an earthenware vessel, shaped like a top, not very steady; and some people call it the cotyliscus, as Pamphilus tells us. But they use it at Eleusis on the last day of the Mysteries, which day they call Plemochoai, from the cups. And on this day they fill two plemochoæ, and place one looking towards the east, and the other looking towards the west, saying over them a mystic form of words; and the author of the Pirithous names them (whoever he was, whether Critias the tyrant, or Euripides), saying,—
That with well-omen'd words we now may pour[p. 793] There is a vessel, too, called the pristis; and that this is a species of cup has been already stated in the discussion on the batiacium.
These plemochoæ into the gulf below.
There is the prochytes, too. This is a kind of drinking-cup, as Simaristus says, in the fourth book of his Synonymes. But Ion the Chian, in his Elegies, says—
But let the cupbearing maidens fill for usand Philetas, in his Miscellanies, says it is a wooden vessel, from which the countrymen drink: and Alexander also mentions it in his Tigon. And Xenophon, in the eighth book of his Cyropædia, calls some kinds of culices, prochoides, writing thus (and it is of the Persians that he is speaking):—“But it was a custom among them not to bring prochoides into their banquets, evidently because they think that not drinking too much is good both for the body and the mind. And even now the custom prevails that they do not bring them; but they drink such a quantity of wine that, instead of carrying in their cups, they themselves are carried out, when they can no longer go out themselves in an upright attitude.” There is also the Prusias; and it has been already said that this is an upright kind of cup, and that it derived its name from Prusias king of Bithynia, who was a man very notorious for his luxury and effeminacy; as is mentioned by Nicander the Chalcedonian, in the fourth book of his History of the Events of the Life of Prusias.
A crater with their silver prochytæ;
There are also rheonta; for this was a name given to some cups: and Astydamas mentions them in his Mercury, speaking thus:—
First of all were two silver craters large,There is also the rhysis. This is called a golden phiala by Theodorus; and Cratinus, in his Laws, says—“Pouring a libation from a rhysis.”
And fifty phialæ, and ten cymbia,
And twelve rheonta, two of which were gold,
The others silver;-of the gold ones, one
Was like a griffin, one like Pegasus.
There is also the Rhodias. Diphilus, in his Stormer of Walls (but Callimachus calls the play The Eunuch), speaks thus—
And they intend to drink more plenteously[p. 794] Dioxippus, too, mentions this cup, in his Miser; and so does Aristotle, in his treatise on Drunkenness; and so also does Lynceus the Samian, in his Letters.
Than rhodiaca or rhyta can supply.
There is also the rhytum—ῥυτόν. The υ is short, and the word has an acute accent on the last syllable. Demosthenes, in his speech against Midias, speaks of “rhyta, and cymbia, and phialæ.” But Diphilus, in his Eunuch, or The Soldier, (and this play is a new edition of his Stormer of Walls,) says—
And they intend to drink more plenteouslyAnd Epinicus, in his Supposititious Damsels, says—
Than rhodiaca or rhyta can supply.
A. And of the large-sized rhyta three are here;And, speaking of the rhytum, he says—
To-day one will be forced to drink more steadily,
By the clepsydra.
B. This, I think, will act
A. Why, 'tis an elephant!
B. Yes, he
Is bringing round his elephants.
A. A rhytus,
Holding two choes, such as e'en an elephant
Could hardly drink; but I have drunk it often.
B. Yes, for you're very like an elephant.
A. There is besides another kind of cup,
Its name a trireme; this, too, holds one choeus.
A. Bellerophon, on Pegasus's back,But formerly a drinking-horn was also called a rhytum; and it appears that this kind of vessel was first made by Ptolemy Philadelphus the king, to be carried by the statues of Ar- sinoe: for in her right hand she bears a vessel of this kind, full of all the fruits of the season; by which the makers of it designed to show that this horn is richer than the horn of Amalthea. And it is mentioned by Theocles, in his Ithyphallics, thus—
Fought and subdued the fire-breathing Chimænra.
B. Well, take this cup.
For all the journeymen to-dayBut Dionysius of Sinope, in his Female Saviour, giving a list of some cups, has also mentioned the rhytus, as I have said [p. 795] before; but Hedylus, in his Epigrams, mentioning the rhytum made by Ctesibius the engineer or machinist, speaks thus—
Have sacrificed Soteria;
And in their company I've drunk this cup,
And now I go to my dear king.
Come hither, all ye drinkers of sheer wine,—But Theophrastus, in his treatise on Drunkenness, says that the cup called the rhytum is given to heroes alone. Dorotheus the Sidonian, says that the rhyta resemble horns, but are perforated at both ends, and men drink of them at the bottom as they send forth a gentle stream; and that it derives its name from the liquor flowing from them ἀπὸτῆς ῥύσεως
Come, and within this shrine behold this rhytus,
The cup of fair Arsinoe Zephyritis,
The true Egyptian Besa, which pours forth
Shrill sounds, what time its stream is open'd wide,—
No sound of war; but from its golden mouth
It gives a signal for delight and feasting,
Such as the Nile, the king of flowing rivers,
Pours as its melody from its holy shrines,
Dear to the priests of sacred mysteries.
But honour this invention of Ctesibius,
And come, O youths, to fair Arsinoe's temple.
There is the sannacra too. Crates, in the fifth book of his treatise on the Attic Dialect, says that it is a drinking-cup which bears this name, but it is a Persian cup. But Philemon, in his Widow, mentioning the batiacia, and jesting on the ridiculousness of the name, says—
The sannacra, and hippotragelaphi,There is also the Seleuci; and we have already stated that this cup derives its name from king Seleucus; Apollodorus the Athenian having made the same statement. But Polemo, in the first chapter of his treatise addressed to Adæus, says these goblets are very like one another, the Seleucis, the Rhodias, and the Antigonis. Then, there is the scallium. This is a small cup ῾κυλίκιον̓, with which the Aeolians pour libations, as Philetas tells us, in his Miscellanies.
And batiacia, and sannacia.
There is also the scyphus. Now some people form the genitive of this word σκύθος with a ς invariably; but they are mistaken: for sometimes σκύθος is masculine, like λύχνος, and then we form its genitive case without ς but when σκύθος is neuter, then we must decline with the ς, σκύθος σκύθος, like τεῖχος τείχος.. But the Attic writers use the [p. 796] nominative case in both the masculine and neuter genders. And Hesiod, in the second book of his Melampodia, writes the word with a π, σκύπθοσ-—
To him came Mares, a swift messenger,And in another place he says—
Straight from his house; he fill'd a silver cup ῾σκύθος᾿,
And brought it in his hand, and gave it to the king.
And then the prophet in his right hand tookAnd in the same manner Anaximander in his Heroology speaks, where he says, “But Amphitryon, when he had divided the booty among his allies, and having the cup ῾σκύπθος᾿ which he had selected for himself, . . .”And in another place he says—“But Neptune gives his σκύπθος to Teleboas his own son, and Teleboas to Pteselaus; and he when he received it sailed away.” And in the same manner Anacreon has said—
The chain that held the bull; and on his back
Iphiclus laid his hand: and following then,
Holding a cup σκύπθος in one hand, in the other
Raising a staff, brave Phylacus advanced,
And, standing amid the servants, thus he spoke.
But I, in my right hand holding(And in this last line he uses the verb ἐξέπινον instead of προέεπινον For properly speaking προπίνω means to give to some one else to drink before yourself. And so Ulysses, in Homer,—
A σκύπθος full of wine,
Drank to the health of the white-crested Erxion.
Gave to Arete first the well-fill'd cup.And in the Iliad he says—
And first he fill'd a mighty cup of wine,for they used, when they had filled their cups, to pledge one another with a friendly address.) Panyasis, in the third book of his Heraclea, says—
Then pledg'd the hero, Peleus' son divine;
This wine he pour'd into an ample bowl,Euripides, in his Eurystheus, uses the word in the masculine gender— [p. 797] And Simonides too, speaking of a cup with handles, says, οὐατόεντα σκύφον. But Ion, in his Omphale, says— σκύφελ regularly from σκύφος, as a neuter noun. And in the same way Epicharmus, in his Cyclops, says—
Radiant with gold, and then with frequent draughts
He drain'd the flowing cup.
But having filled a cup ῾σκύφος᾿, he gave it him,τῷ σκύφει and the cissybium; but only the swine-herds, and shepherds, and men in the fields, as Eumæus, for instance,
Having himself drunk from the same.
Gave him the cup ῾σκύφος᾿ from which he drank himself,And Alæman says—
Well filled with wine.
And often on the highest mountain tops,And Aeschylus, in his Perrhæbians, says—
When some most tuneful festival of song
Is held in honour of the Gods, you hold
A golden vessel,—a fine, ample cup ῾σκύφον̓,
Such as the shepherds, pasturing their flocks
On the high hills, delight in, . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . have made cheese
Most delicate and white to look upon.
Where are my many gifts and warlike spoils,—And Stesichorus cans the cup on the board of Pholus the Centaur σκύφειον δέπας, using σκύφειον as synonymous to σκυφοειδές.. And he says, when speaking of Hercules–
Where are my gold and silver cups ῾σκυφώματἀ̣
And taking a huge scyphus-shaped cup ῾σκύπφειον δέπας᾿,And Archippus, in his Amphitryon, has used the word in the neuter gender.
Holding three measures, to his lips he raised it,
[p. 798] Full of rich wine, which Pholus wisely mix'd
And gave him; and at one good draught he drank it.
But as for the word λάγυνον, they say that that is the name of a measure among the Greeks, as also are the words χοὸς and κοτύλη. And they say that the λάγυνον contains twelve Attic κότυλαι.. And at Patræ they say that there is a regular measure called ἡ λάγυνος. But Nicostratus, in his Hecate, has used the word in the masculine gender, ὁ λάγυνος, where he says—
A. And yet among the flagons into whichAnd again he says—
We pour'd the wine out of the casks, now tell me
What is the measure some of them contain ῾πηλίκοι τινές᾿̣
B. They hold three choes each.
I have an empty flagon, my good woman,And Lynceus the Samian, in his letter to Diagoras, says, —“At the time that you sojourned in Samos, O Diagoras, I know that you often came to banquets at my house, at which a flagon was placed by each man, and filled with wine, so as to allow every one to drink at his pleasure.” And Aristotle, in his Constitution of the Thessalians, says that the word is used by the Thessalians in the feminine gender, as ἡ λάγυνος. And Rhianus the epic poet, in his Epigrams, says—
And a full wallet.
This flagon ῾ἥδε λάγυνος᾿ O Archinus, seems to holdBut Diphilus, in his Brothers, has used the word in the neuter gender—
One half of pitch from pines, one half of wine;
And I have never met a leaner kid:
And he who sent these dainties to us now,
Hippocrates, has done a friendly deed,
And well deserves to meet with praise from all men.
O conduct worthy of a housebreakerAnd the line in the Geryonis of Stesichorus— A measure of three flagons ῾ἔμμετρον ὡς τριλάγυνον̓ leaves it quite uncertain under what gender the word is to be classed as far as respects that line. But Eratosthenes says that the words πέτασος and στάμνος are also used as feminine nouns by some authors.
Or felon, thus to take a flagon now
Under one's arm, and so go round the inns;
And then to sell it, while, as at a picnic,
[p. 799] One single vintner doth remain behind,
Defrauded by his wine-merchant.
But the name σκύφος is derived from σκαφὶς, a little boat. And this likewise is a round vessel made of wood, intended to receive milk, or whey; as it is said in Homer—
Capacious chargers all around were laid,Unless, indeed, σκύφος is quasi σκύθος, because the Scythians were in the habit of drinking more than was decent. But Hieronymus the Rhodian, in his treatise on Drunkenness, says to get drunk is called σκυθίζω;; for that θ is a cognate letter to φ. But at subsequent times scyphi were made of earthenware and of silver, in imitation of the wooden ones. And the first makers of cups of this kind were the Bœotians, who obtained a high reputation for their manufacture; because Hercules originally used these cups in his expeditions. On which account they are called Heracleotici by some people. And they are different from other cups; for they have on their handles what is called the chain of Hercules. And Bacchylides mentions the Bœotian scyphi in these words, (addressing his discourse to Castor and Pollux, and invoking their attendance at a banquet)—
Full pails ῾σκαφίδες᾿, and vessels of the milking trade.
Here there are no mighty jointsAnd next to the Bœotian scyphi, those which had the highest reputation were the Rhodian ones, of the workmanship of Damocrates. And the next to them were the Syracusan cups. But the σκύφος is called by the Epirotes λυρτὸς, as Seleucus reports; and by the Methymnæans it is called σκύθος, as Parmeno says, in his book on Dialects. And [p. 800] Dercyllidas the Lacedæmonian was nicknamed σκύθος, as Ephorus relates in his eighteenth book, where he speaks as follows:—“The Lacedæmonians sent Dercyllidas into Asia in the place of Thymbron, having heard that the barbarians were in the habit of doing everything by deceit and trick; on which account they sent Dercyllidas, thinking that he was the least likely of all men to be taken in; for he was not at all of a Lacedæmonian and simple disposition, but exceedingly cunning and fierce; on which account the Lacedæmonians themselves used to call him σκύθον.”
Of oxen slain,—no golden plate,
No purple rich embroidery;
But there is a cheerful mind,
And a sweetly-sounding Muse,
And plenty of delicious wine,
In cups of Theban workmanship ῾βοιωτίοισιν ἐν σκύφοισιν̓.
There is the tabaitas also. Amyntas, in the first book of his treatise on the Stations of Asia, speaking of what is called aerial honey, writes as follows:—“They gather it with the leaves, and store it up, making it up in the same manner as the Syrian cakes of fruit, but some make it into balls; and when they are about to use it for food, they break pieces off these cakes into wooden cups, which they call tabaitæ, and soak them, and then strain them off and drink the liquor; and the drink is very like diluted honey, but this is much the sweeter of the two.” There is also the tragelaphus. And this is the name given to some cups, as Alexis mentions, in his Coniates—
Cymbia, phialæ, tragelaphi, culices.And Eubulus, in his Man Glued on, says—
But there are five phialæ, and two tragelaphi.And Menander, in his Fisherman, says—
Tragelaphi, labronii.And Antiphanes, in his Chrysis, says—
And for this rich and sordid bridegroom now,There is also the trireme. And that trireme is the name of a species of drinking-cup Epicurus has shown, in his Supposititious Damsels; and the passage which is a proof of this has been already quoted. There is also the hystiacum, which is some sort of drinking-cup. Rhinthon, in his Hercules, says— [p. 801]
Who owns so many talents, slaves, and stewards,
And pairs of horses, camels, coverlets,—
Such loads of silver plate, such phialæ,
Triremes, tragelaphi, carchesia,
Milkpails of solid gold, vessels of all sorts;
For all the gluttons and the epicures
Call casks brimful of wine mere simple milkpails.
You swallow'd, in one small hystiacum,
A cheesecake of pure meal, and groats, and flour.
There is the phiale too. Homer, when he says—
He placed a phiale upon the board,and again, when he says—
By both hands to be raised (ἀμφίθετον), untouch'd by fire;
A golden phiale, and doubled fat;is not speaking of a drinking-cup, but of a brazen vessel of a flat shape like a caldron, having perhaps two handles, one on each side. But Parthenius the pupil of Dionysius understands by ἀμφίθετον a phiale without any bottom. But Apollodorus the Athenian, in his short essay on the Crater, says that it means a cup which cannot be firmly placed and steadied on its bottom, but only on its mouth. But some say, that just as the word ἀμφιφορεὺς is used for a cup which can be lifted by its handles on both sides, the same is meant by the expression ἀμφίθετος φιάλη. But Aristarchus says that it means a cup which can be placed on either end, on its mouth or on its bottom. But Dionysius the Thracian says that the word ἀμφίθετος means round, running round (ἀμφιθέων) in a circular form. And Asclepiades the Myrlean says,—"The word φιάλη, by a change of letters, becomes πιάλη, a cup which contains enough to drink (πιεῖν ἅλις); for it is larger than the ποτήριον. But when Homer calls it also ἀπύρωτος, he means either that it was wrought without fire, or never put on the fire. On which account he calls a kettle which may be put on the fire ἐμπυριβήτης, and one which is not so used ἄπυρος. And when he says—
An ample charger, of unsullied frame,he perhaps means one intended to receive cold water. So that the phiale would in that case resemble a flat brazen vessel, holding cold water. But when he calls it ἀμφίθετος, can we understand that it has two bases, one on each side; or is ἀμφὶ here to be taken as equivalent to περὶ, and t en again is περὶ to be taken as equivalent to περιττὸν, so that in fact all that is meant by the epithet is beautifully made; since θεῖναι was often used by the ancients for 'to make?' It may also mean, ' being capable of being placed either on its bottom or upon its mouth;' and such a placing of cups is an Ionian [p. 802] and an ancient fashion. And even now the Massilians often adopt it, and set their goblets down on their mouths."
With flowers high wrought, not blacken'd yet by flame,
But as Cratinus has said, in his Female Runaways—
Receive from me these round-bottom'd phialæ,Eratosthenes, in the eleventh book of his treatise on Comedy, says that Lycophron did not understand the meaning of the word (βαλανειόμφαλος), for that the word ὀμφαλὸς, as applied to a phiale, and the word θόλος, as applied to a bath, were nearly similar in meaning; and that, in the word, allusion is neatly enough made to the umbilical form. But Apion and Diodorus say, “There are some kinds of phialæ of which the boss is similar to a strainer.” But Asclepiades the Myrlean, in his Essays on Cratinus, says—“βαλανειόμφαλοι are the Phialæ called, because their bosses and the vaulted roofs of the baths are much alike.” And Didymus, saying the same thing, cites the words of Lycophron, which run thus:— “From the bosses in the women's baths, out of which they ladle the water in small cups.” But Timarchus, in the fourth book of his Essay on the Mercury of Eratosthenes, says,—"Any one may suppose that this word contains a secret allusion in it, because most of the baths at Athens, being circular in their shape, and in all their furniture, have slight projections in the middle, on which a brazen boss is placed. Ion, in his Omphale, says—
Go quick, O damsels; hither bring the cups,and by μεσόμφαλοι here, he means the same things as those which Cratinus calls βαλανειόμφαλοι, where he says—
And the mesomphali;—
Receive from me these round-bottom'd phialæ.And Theopompus, in his Althæa, said—
She took a golden round-bottom'd (μεσόμφαλον) phiale,as Telestes had called the phiale an acatos, or boat. But Pherecrates, or whoever the poet was who composed the Persæ, which are attributed to him, says, in that play—
Brimful of wine; to which Telestes gave
The name of acatos;
But the Athenians call silver phialæ ἀργυρίδες, and golden ones they call χρυσίδες. And Pherecrates mentions the silver phiale in the following words in his Persæ— [p. 803]
Making libations with a golden phiale (χρυσίδἰ,And Hermippus, in his Cercopes, says—
He gave the serpents drink.
He first completely drain'd an ample cup,There was also a kind of cup called the βαλανωτὴ phiale, under the bottom of which were placed golden feet. And Teneus says, that among the offerings at Delos there was a brazen palm-tree, the offering of the Naxians, and some golden phialæ, to which he gives the epithet καρυωταί. But Anaxandrides calls cups of this fashion the phialæ of Mars. But the AEolians call the phiale an aracis.
Golden (χρυσίδα) and round, then carried it away.
There is also the phthoïs these are wide-shaped Phialæ with bosses. Eupolis says—
He pledged the guests in phthoïdes,writing the dative plural φθοῖσι; but it ought to have an acute on the last syllable; like καρσὶ, παισὶ, φθειρσί. There is the philotesia also. This is a kind of κύλιξ, in which they pledged one another out of friendship, as Pamphilus says. And Demosthenes says, “And he pledged him in the philotesia.” And Alexis says—
We, in our private and public capacity,But, besides being the name of a cup, a company feasting together was also called φιλοτήσιον. Aristophanes says—
Do pledge you now in this philotesian culix.
Now does the shadow of the descending sunBut it was from the system of pledging one another at these banquets that the cup got the name of philotesia—as in the Lysistrata—
Mark seven feet: 'tis time for supper now,
And the philotesian company invites me.
O thou Persuasion, mistress of my soul!There are also chonni. Among the Gortynians this is the name given to a species of cup resembling the thericleum, made of brass, which Hermonax says is given by lovers to the objects of their affection. There are also Chalcidic goblets, having their name and reputation perhaps from Chalcis in Thrace. [p. 804]
And you, O philotesian cup of wine.
There are also χυτρίδες; Alexis, in his Supposititious Child, says—
I, seeking to do honour to the king,But Herodotus, in the fifth book of his History, says “that the Argives and Aeginetans made a law that no one should ever use any Attic vessel of any kind in their sacrifices, not even if made of earthenware; but that for the future every one should drink out of the χυτρίδες of the country.” And Meleager the Cynic, in his Symposium, writes as follows—“And in the meantime he proposed a deep pledge to his health, twelve deep χυτρίδια full of wine.”
To Ptolemy and to his sister, took
Four χυτρίδια of strong, untemper'd wine,
And drank them at a draught, with as much pleasure
As any one ever swallow'd half-and-half:
And, for the sake of this agreement, why
Should I not now feast in this splendid light?
There is also the ψυγεὺς or ψυκτήρ. Plato, in his Symposium, says,—“But, O boy, bring, said he, that psycter hither (for he had seen one which held more than eight cotylæ). Accordingly, when' he had filled it, first of all he drank it himself, and then he ordered it to be filled again for Socrates . . . . . as Archebulus was attempting to be prolix, the boy, pouring the wine out at a very seasonable time, overturned the psycter.” And Alexis, in his Colonist, says—
A psygeus, holding three full cotylæ.And Dioxippus, in his Miser, says—
And from Olympicus he then receivedAnd Menander, in his play entitled The Brazier's Shop, says—
Six thericlean cups, and then two psycters.
And, as the present fashion is, they shoutedAnd Epigenes, in his Heroine, giving a list of many cups, among them mentions the psygeus thus—
For more untemper'd wine; and some one took
A mighty psycter, giving them to drink,
And so destroy'd them wretchedly.
Now take the boys, and make them hither bringAnd Strattis, in his Psychaste— [p. 805]
The thericlean and the Rhodian cups;
But bring yourself the psycter and the cyathus,
Some cymbia too.
And one man having stolen a psycter,But Alexis, in his Hippiscus, uses the diminutive form, and calls it a ψυκτηρίδιον, saying—
And his companion, who has taken away
A brazen cyathus, both lie perplex'd,
Looking for a chœnix and a cotylis.
I went to see my friend while at his inn,
And there I met a dark-complexion'd man,
And told my slaves, for I brought two from home,
To put in sight the well-clean'd drinking-cups:
There was a silver cyathus, and cups
Weighing two drachmas each; a cymbium,
Whose weight was four; a ψυκτηρίδιον,
Weighing two obols, thinner than Philippides.
But Heracleon of Ephesus says, “The cup which we call ψυγεὺς some name the ψυκτηρία, but the Attic writers make jokes upon the ψυγεὺς, as being a foreign name.” Euphorion, in his Woman Restoring, says—
But when they call a ψυγεὺς a ψυκτηρίς,And Antiphanes, in his Knights, says—
And σεύτλιον τεῦλα, and the φακῆ φακεὺς,
What can one do? For I rightly said,
Give me, I pray, Pyrgothemis, some change
For this your language, as for foreign money.
How then are we to live? Our bedclothes areAnd in the Carna he declares plainly that, when pouring out wine, they used the psycter for a cyathus. For after he had said—
A saddlecloth, and our well-fitting hat
Only a psycter. What would you have more?
Here is the very Amalthean horn.
And putting on the board a tripod and cask,in the passage following, he represents his man as saying—
And psycter too, he gets drunk on the wine;
So will the drink be fiercer: therefore now,But Dionysius the pupil of Tryphon, in his treatise on Names, says—“The ancients used to call the psygeus dinus.” But Nicander of Thyatira says, that woods and shady places dedicated to the gods are also called ψυκτῆρες, as being places where one may cool oneself (ἀναψύξαι). Aeschylus, in his Young Men, says—
If any one should say it is not fit
T' indulge in wine at present, just leave out
This cask, and this one single drinking-cup,
And carry all the rest away at once.
And gentle airs, in the cool, shady places (ψυκτηρίυις);[p. 806] and Euripides, in his Phaethon, says—
The trees, affording a cool shade (ψυκτήρια),and the author of the poem called Aegimius, whether it really was Hesiod, or only Cecrops of Miletus, says—
Shall now embrace him in their loving arms;
There shall my cool shade (ψυκτήριον) be, O king of men.
There is also the oidos. This was the name of a drinking-cup, as we are told by Tryphon, in his Onomasticon; a cup given to him who sang the scolia—as Antiphanes shows in his Doubles—
A. What will there be, then, for the godsThere are also the ooscyphia. Now respecting the shape of these cups, Asclepiades the Myrlean, in his Essay on the Nestoris, says that it has two bottoms, one of them wrought on to the bowl of the cup, and of the same piece with it; but the other attached to it, beginning with a sharp point, and ending in a broad bottom, on which the cup stands. There is also the ὠὸν, or egg-cup. Dinon, in the third book of his Affairs of Persia, speaks as follows:—There is also a bread called potibazis, made of barley and roasted wheat; and a crown of cypress leaves; and wine tempered in a golden oon, from which the king himself drinks."
B. Why, nothing,
Unless now some one mixes wine for them.
A. Stop; take this ᾠδὸς, and abandon all
Those other worn-out fashions; sing no more
Of Telamon, or Pæon, or Harmodius.
Plutarch having said this, and being applauded by every one, asked for a phiala, from which he made a libation to the Muses, and to Mnemosyne their mother, and drank the health of every one present, saying,—As if any one, taking a cup in his hand, being a rich man, were to make a present of it, foaming over with the juice of the vine;"— and drinking not only to the young bridegroom, but also to all his friends; and he gave the cup to the boy, desiring him to carry it round to every one, saying that this was the proper meaning of the phrase κύκλῳ πίνειν, reciting the verses of Menander in his Perinthian Woman—
And the old woman did not leave untouch'dAnd again, in his Fanatical Woman, he says— [p. 807]
One single cup, but drank of all that came.
And then again she carries round to allAnd Euripides, in his Cretan Women, says—
A cup of unmix'd wine.
Farewell all other things, as longAnd then, when Leonidas the grammarian demanded a larger cup, and said,—Let us drink hard (κρατηρίζωμεν), my friends, (for that was the word which Lysanias the Cyrenean says that Herodorus used to apply to drinking parties, when he says, “But when they had finished the sacrifice they turned to the banquet, and to craters, and prayers, and peas;” and the poet, who was the author of the poem called the Buffoons—a play which Duris says that the wise Plato always had in his hands—says, somewhere, ἐκεκρατηρίχημες, for “we had drunk;”) But now, in the name of the gods, said Pontianus, you are drinking in a manner which is scarcely becoming, out of large cups, having that most delightful and witty author Xenophon before your eyes, who in his Banquet says,—“But Socrates, in his turn, said, But it seems to me now, O men, that we ought to drink hard. For wine, in reality, while it moistens the spirit, lulls the griefs to sleep as mandragora does men; but it awakens all cheerful feelings, as oil does fire. And it appears to me that the bodies of men are liable to the same influences which affect the bodies of those things which grow in the ground; for the very plants, when God gives them too much to drink, cannot hold up their heads, nor can they expand at their proper seasons. But when they drink just as much as is good for them, and no more, then they grow in an upright attitude, and flourish, and come in a flourishing state to produce fruit. And so, too, in our case, if we take too much drink all at once, our bodies and our minds rapidly get disordered, and we cannot even breathe correctly, much less speak. But if our slaves bedew us (to use Gorgias-like language) in small quantities with small cups, then we are not compelled to be intoxicated by the wine; but being gently induced, we proceed to a merry and cheerful temperament.”
As cups of wine go freely round.
Now, any one who considers these expressions of the accomplished Xenophon, may understand how it as that the brilliant Plato displayed such jealousy of him. But perhaps the fact may partly be because these men did from the very [p. 808] beginning feel a spirit of rivalry towards one another, each being aware of his own powers; and perhaps they began very early to contend for the preeminence, as we may conjecture not only from what they have both written about Cyrus, but also from other writings of theirs on similar subjects. For they have both written a piece called the Banquet; and in these two pieces, one of them turns out the female flute-players, and the other introduces them; and one, as has been already said, refuses to drink out of large cups, but the other represents Socrates as drinking out of a psycter till morning. And in his treatise concerning the Soul, Plato, reckoning up all who were present, does not make even the slightest mention of Xenophon. And concerning Cyrus, the one says that from his earliest youth he was trained up in all the national practices of his country; but Plato, as if in the express spirit of contradiction, says, in the third book of his Laws,—“But with respect to Cyrus, I consider that, as to other things, he was indeed a skilful and careful general, but that he had never had the very least particle of a proper education, and that he had never turned his mind the least in the world to the administration of affairs. But he appears from his earliest youth to have been engaged in war, and to have given his children to his wives to bring up.” And again, Xenophon, who joined Cyrus with the Ten Thousand Greeks, in his expedition into Persia, and who was thoroughly acquainted with the treachery of Meno the Thessalian, and knew that he was the cause of the murder of Clearchus by Tissaphernes, and who knew also the disposition of the man, how morose and debauched he was,—has given us a full account of everything concerning him. But the exquisite Plato, who all but says, “All this is not true,” goes through a long panegyric on him, who was incessantly calumniating every one else. And in his Polity, he banishes Homer from his city, and all poetry of the theatrical kind; and yet he himself wrote dialogues in a theatrical style,—a manner of writing of which he himself was not the inventor; for Alexamenus the Teian had, before him, invented this style of dialogue, as Nicias of Nicæa and Sotion both agree in relating. And Aristotle, in his treatise on Poets, writes thus:—“Let us not then call those Mimes, as they are called, of Sophron, which are written in metre, Discourses and Imitations; or those Dialogues of Alexamenus [p. 809] of Teos, which were written before the Scratic Dialogues;” — Aristotle, the most learned of all men, stating here most expressly that Alexamenus composed his Dialogues before Plato. And Plato also calumniates Thrasymachus of Chalcedon, saying that he was a sophist in a way consistent with his name.16 And he also attacks Hippias, and Gorgias, and Parmenides; and in one dialogue, called Protagoras, he attacks a great many;—a man who in his Republic has said, “When, as I think, a city which has been governed by a democracy, feels a thirst far liberty, and meets with bad cupbearers, and so it gets intoxicated by too untempered a draught . . .”
And it is said also, that Gorgias himself, when he read the dialogue to which Plato has given his name, said to his friends, “How well Plato knows how to write iambics!” And Hermippus, in his book on Gorgias, says,—“When Gorgias was sojourning at Athens, after he had offered up at Delphi the golden image of himself which is there now, and when Plato said when he had seen it, The beautiful and golden Gorgias is come among us, Gorgias replied, This is indeed a fine young Archilochus whom Athens has now brought forth.” But others say that Gorgias, having read the dialogue of Plato, said to the bystanders that he had never said any of the things there attributed to him, and had never heard any such things said by Plato. And they say that Phædo also said the same when he had read the treatise on the Soul, on which account it was well said by Timon, respecting him,—
“How that learned Plato invented fictitious marvels!”For their respective ages will scarcely admit of the Socrates of Plato ever having really had a conference with Parmenides, so as to have addressed him and to have been addressed by him in such language. And what is worst of all is, that he has said, though there was not the slightest occasion for making any such assertion, that Zeno had been beloved by Parmenides, who was his fellow-citizen. Nor, indeed, is it possible that Phædrus should have lived in the time of Socrates, much less that he should have been beloved by him. Nor, again, is it possible that Paralus and Xanthippus, the sons of Pericles, who died of the plague, should have conversed with Protagoras when he came the second time to [p. 810] Athens, as they had died before. And we might mention many other particulars respecting his works to show how wholly fictitious his Dialogues are.
But that Plato was ill-natured to everybody is plain from what he says in his dialogue entitled Ion; in which first of all he abuses all the poets, and then all those who have been promoted to the highest dignities by the people, such as Phanosthenes of Andros, and Apollodorus of Cyzicus, and also Heraclides of Clazomenæ. And in his Menon he abuses those who have been the greatest men among the Athenians—Aristides and Themistocles; and he extols Meno, who betrayed the Greeks. But in his Euthydemus he attacks this same Meno and his brother Dionysiodorus, and calls them men slow to learn any good thing, and contentious people, reproaching them with their flight from Chios, which was their native place, from which they went and settled in Thurii. And, in his essay on Manly Courage, he attacks Melesias, the son of that Thucydides who headed the opposite party to Pericles, and Lysimachus, the son of Aristides the Just, saying that they both fell far short of their fathers' virtues. And as to what he said about Alcibiades, in his Banquet, that is not fit to be produced to light; nor is what he says in the first of the Dialogues which go by his name. For the second Alcibiades is said by some people to be the work of Xenophon; as also the Halcyon is said to be the work of Leon the Academician, as Nicias of Nicæa says. Now, the things which he has said against Alcibiades I will pass over; but I cannot forbear to mention his calling the Athenian people a random judge, guided only by outward appearance. And he praises the Lacedæmonians, and extols also the Persians, who are the enemies of all the Greeks. And he calls Cleinias the brother of Alcibiades a madman; and the sons of Pericles he makes out to be fools; and Meidias he calls a man fit for nothing but killing quails; and of the people of the Athenians he says, that it wears a fair mask, but that one ought to strip the mask off, and look at it then; for he says that it will then be seen that it is only clothed with a specious appearance of a beauty which is not genuine.
But in the Cimon he does not abstain from accusing Themistocles, and Alcibiades, and Myronides, and even Cimon himself; and his Crito contains an invective against Sopho- [p. 811] cles; and his Gorgias contains an invective not only against the man from whom it is named, but also against Archelaus, king of Macedon, whom he reproaches not only with his ignoble birth, but also with having killed his master. And this is the very same Plato whom Speusippus represents as having, while he professed to be a great friend of Archelaus assisted Philip to get possession of the kingdom. At all events, Carystius of Pergamus, in his Historical Commentaries, writes as follows:—“Speusippus, hearing that Philip used calumnious language respecting Plato, wrote something of this sort in his letter to him: 'Just as if men did not know that Philip originally obtained the kingdom by the assistance of Plato.' For Plato sent Euphræus of Oreum to Perdiccas, who persuaded him to apportion a certain district to Philip; and so he, maintaining a force in that country, when Perdiccas died, having all his forces in a state of preparation, seized the supreme power.” But whether all this is true or not, God knows. But his fine Protagoras, besides that it contains attacks on many poets and wise men, also shows up the life of Callias with much greater severity than Eupolis does in his flatterers. And in his Menexenus, not only is Hippias the Elean turned into ridicule, but also Antipho the Rhamnusian, and Lamprus the musician. And the day would fail me, if I were inclined to go through the names of all those who have been abused by that wise man. Nor indeed do I praise Antisthenes; for he, having abused many men, did not abstain even from Plato himself, but, having given him the odious name of Sathon, he then published a dialogue under this name.
But Hegesander the Delphian, in his Commentaries, speaking about the universal ill-nature of Plato towards everybody, writes as follows:—“After the death of Socrates, when a great many of his friends, being present at a banquet, were very much out of spirits, Plato, being present, taking the cup, exhorted them not to despond, as he himself was well able to lead the school; and, so saying, he pledged Apollodorus: and he said, I would rather have taken the cup of poison from Socrates than that pledge of wine from you.' For Plato was considered to be an envious man, and to have a disposition which was far from praiseworthy; for he [p. 812] ridiculed Aristippus when he went to visit Dionysius, though he himself had three times sailed to Sicily,—once for the purpose of investigating the torrents of lava which flow from Mount Aetna, when he lived with the elder Dionysius, and was in danger from his displeasure; and twice he went to visit the younger Dionysius.” And again, though Aeschines was a poor man, and had but one pupil, Xenocrates, he seduced him from him; and he was also detected in instigating the commencement of a prosecution against Phædo, which, if successful, would have reduced him to slavery; and altogether he displayed the feelings of a stepmother towards all the pupils of Socrates. On which account, Socrates, making a not very unreasonable Conjecture respecting him, said in the presence of several persons that he had had a dream, in which he thought he had seen the following vision. “For I thought,” said he, “that Plato had become a crow, and leaped on my head, and began to scratch my bald place, and to take a firm hold, and so to look about him. I think, therefore,” said he, “that you, O Plato, will say a good many things which are false about my head.” And Plato, besides his ill-nature, was very ambitious and vainglorious; and he said, “My last tunic, my desire of glory, I lay aside in death itself—in my will, and in my funeral procession, and in my burial;” as Dioscorides relates in his Memorabilia. And as for his desire of founding cities and making laws, who will not say that these are very ambitious feelings? And this is plain from what he says in the Timæus—“I have the same feelings towards my constitution that a painter would have towards his works; for as he would wish to see them possessed of the power of motion and action, so too do I wish to see the citizens whom I here describe.”
But concerning the things which he has said in his Dialogues, what can any one say? For the doctrine respecting the soul, which he makes out to be immortal, even after it is separated from the body, and after the dissolution of this latter, was first mentioned by Homer; for he has said, that the soul of Patroclus—
Fled to the shades below,If, then, any one were to say that this is also the argument of [p. 813] Plato, still I do not see what good we have got from him; for if any one were to agree that the souls of those who are dead do migrate into other natures, and do mount up to some higher and purer district, as partaking of its lightness, still what should we get by that theory? For, as we have neither any recollection of where we formerly were, nor any perception whether we really existed at all, what do we get by such an immortality as that? And as to the book of the Laws composed by him, and the Polity which was written before the Laws, what good have they done us? And yet he ought (as Lycurgus did the Lacedæmonians, and as Solon did the Athenians, and Zaleucus the Thurians), if they were excellent, to have persuaded some of the Greeks to adopt them. For a law (as Aristotle says) is a form of words decided on by the common agreement of a city, pointing out how one ought to do everything. And how can we consider Plato's conduct anything but ridiculous; since, when there were already three Athenian lawgivers who had a great name,—Draco, and Plato himself, and Solon,—the citizens abide by the laws of the other two, but ridicule those of Plato? And the case of the Polity is the same. Even if his Constitution is the best of all possible constitutions, yet, if it does not persuade us to adopt it, what are we the better for it? Plato, then, appears to have written his laws, not for men who have any real existence, but rather for a set of men invented by himself; so that one has to look for people who will use them. But it would have been better for him to write such things as he could persuade men of; and not to act like people who only pray, but rather like those who seize hold of what offers itself to them.
Lamenting its untimely fate, and leaving
Its vigour and its youth.
However, to say no more on this point, if any one were to go through his Timæus and his Gorgias, and his other dialogues of the same character, in which he discuss the different subjects of education, and subjects of natural philosophy, and several other circumstances,—even when considered in this light, he is not to be admired on this account; for one may find these same topics handled by others, either better than by him, or at all events not worse. For Theopompus the Chian, in his book Against the School of Plato, says— “We shall find the greater part of his Dialogues useless and false, and a still greater number borrowed from other people; [p. 814] as some of them come from the school of Aristippus, and some from that of Antisthenes, and a great many from that of Bryson of Heraclea.” And as to the disquisitions which he enters into about man, we also seek in his arguments for what we do not find. But what we do find are banquets, and conversations about love, and other very unseemly harangues, which he composed with great contempt for those who were to read them, as the greater part of his pupils were of a tyrannical and calumnious disposition.
For Euphræus, when he was sojourning with king Perdiccas in Macedonia, was not less a king than the other, being a man of a depraved and calumnious disposition, who managed all the companionship of the king in so cold a manner, that no one was allowed to partake of his entertainments unless he knew something about geometry or philosophy; on which account, after Philip obtained the government, Parmenio, having caught him in Oreum, put him to death; as Carystius relates in his Historical Com- mentaries. And Callippus the Athenian, who was himself a pupil of Plato, having been a companion and fellow-pupil of Dion, and having travelled with him to Syracuse, when he saw that Dion was attempting to make himself master of the kingdom, slew him; and afterwards, attempting to usurp the supreme power himself, was slain too. And Euagon of Lampsacus (as Eurypylus says, and Dicæocles of Cnidus, in the ninety-first book of his Commentaries, and also Demochares the orator, in his argument in defence of Sophocles, against Philo), having lent his native city money on the security of its Acropolis, and being afterwards unable to recover it, endeavoured to seize on the tyranny, until the Lampsacenes attacked him, and repaid him the money, and drove him out of the city. And Timæus of Cyzicus (as the same Demochares relates), having given largesses of money and corn to his fellow-citizens, and being on this account believed by the Cyzicenes to be an excellent man, after having waited a little time, attempted to overturn the constitution with the assistance of Aridæus; and being brought to trial and convicted, and branded with infamy, he remained in the city to an extreme old age, being always, however, considered dishonoured and infamous. And such now are some of the Academicians, who live in [p. 815] a scandalous and infamous manner. For they, having by impious and unnatural means acquired vast wealth by trickery, are at present highly thought of; as Chæon of Pellene, who was not only a pupil of Plato, but of Xenocrates also. And he too, having usurped the supreme power in his country, and having exercised it with great severity, not only banished the most virtuous men in the city, but also gave the property of the masters to their slaves, and gave their wives also to them, compelling them to receive them as their husbands; having got all these admirable ideas from that excellent Polity and those illegal Laws of Plato.
On which account Ephippus the comic poet, in his Shipwrecked Man, has turned into ridicule Plato himself, and some of his acquaintances, as being sycophants for money, showing that they used to dress in a most costly manner, and that they paid more attention to the elegance of their persons than even the most extravagant people among us. And he speaks as follows—
Then some ingenious young man rising up,And here let us put an end to this part of the discussion, my friend Timocrates. And we will next proceed to speak of those who have been notorious for their luxury.
Some pupil of the New Academy,
Brought up at Plato's feet and those of Bryso,
That bold, contentious, covetous philosopher,—
And urged by strong necessity, and able,
By means of his small-wages-seeking art,
To speak before th' assembly, in a manner
Not altogether bad; having his hair
Carefully trimm'd with a new-sharpen'd razor,
And letting down his beard in graceful fall,
Putting his well-shod foot in his neat slipper,
Binding his ancles in the equal folds
Of his well-fitting hose, and well protected
Across the chest with the breastplate of his cloak,
And leaning, in a posture dignified,
Upon his staff; said, as it seems to me,
With mouthing emphasis, the following speech,
More like a stranger than a citizen,—
“Men of the land of wise Athenians.”