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[544c] “There will be no difficulty about that,” said I. “For those I mean are precisely those that have names1 in common usage: that which the many praised,2 your3 Cretan and Spartan constitution; and the second in place and in honor, that which is called oligarchy, a constitution teeming with many ills, and its sequent counterpart and opponent, democracy ; and then the noble4 tyranny surpassing them all, the fourth and final malady5 of a state.

1 Cf. What Plato Said, p. 596, on Sophist 267 D.

2 Cf. Crito 52 E, Norlin on Isoc.Nicocles 24 (Loeb), Laws 612 D-E, Aristot.Pol. 1265 b 32, Xen.Mem. iii. 5. 15.

3 . . . αὔτη, “ista.” Cf. Midsummer Night's Dream,I. ii.ad fin. and Gorg. 502 B, 452 E.

4 Of course ironical. Cf. 454 A, and What Plato Said, p. 592, on Soph. 231 B.

5 Cf. 552 C, Protag. 322 d, Isoc.Hel. 34, Wilamowitz on Eurip.Heracles 542. For the effect of surprise Cf. Rep. 334 A, 373 A, 555 A, Theaet. 146 A, Phileb. 46 Aκακόν and 64 Eσυμφορά.

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