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[1006b] [1] for one could assign a different name to each formula.For instance, it might be said that "man" has not one meaning but several, one of which has the formula "two-footed animal," and there might be many other formulae as well, if they were limited in number; for a particular name could be assigned to each for formula.If on the other hand it be said that "man" has an infinite number of meanings, obviously there can be no discourse; for not to have one meaning is to have no meaning, and if words have no meaning there is an end of discourse with others, and even, strictly speaking, with oneself; because it is impossible to think of anything if we do not think of one thing; and even if this were possible, one name might be assigned to that of which we think.Now let this name, as we said at the beginning, have a meaning; and let it have one meaning. Now it is impossible that "being man" should have the same meaning as "not being man," that is, if "man" is not merely predicable of one subject but has one meaning(for we do not identify "having one meaning" with "being predicable of one subject," since in this case "cultured" and "white" and "man" would have one meaning, and so all things would be one; for they would all have the same meaning). And it will be impossible for the same thing to be and not to be, except by equivocation, as e.g. one whom we call "man" [20] others might call "not-man";but the problem is whether the same thing can at once be and not be "man," not in name , but in fact . If "man" and "not-man" have not different meanings, clearly "not being a man" will mean nothing different from "being a man"; and so "being a man" will be "not being a man"; they will be one.For "to be one" means, as in the case of "garment" and "coat," that the formula is one. And if "being man" and "being not-man" are to be one, they will have the same meaning; but it has been proved above that they have different meanings. If then anything can be truly said to be "man," it must be "two-footed animal"; for this is what "man" was intended to mean.And if this is necessarily so, it is impossible that at the same time the same thing should not be "two-footed animal." For "to be necessarily so" means this: that it is impossible not to be so. Thus it cannot be true to say at the same time that the same thing is and is not man.And the same argument holds also in the case of not being man;

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