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[1011a] [1] because that which moves is by nature prior to that which is moved, and this is no less true if the terms are correlative.

But there are some, both of those who really hold these convictions and of those who merely profess these views, who raise a difficulty; they inquire who is to judge of the healthy man, and in general who is to judge rightly in each particular case. But such questions are like wondering whether we are at any given moment asleep or awake;and all problems of this kind amount to the same thing. These people demand a reason for everything. They want a starting-point, and want to grasp it by demonstration; while it is obvious from their actions that they have no conviction. But their case is just what we have stated before1; for they require a reason for things which have no reason, since the starting-point of a demonstration is not a matter of demonstration.The first class, then, may be readily convinced of this, because it is not hard to grasp. But those who look only for cogency in argument look for an impossibility, for they claim the right to contradict themselves, and lose no time in doing so.Yet if not everything is relative, but some things are self-existent, not every appearance will be true; for an appearance is an appearance to someone. And so he who says that all [20] appearances are true makes everything relative.Hence those who demand something cogent in argument, and at the same time claim to make out a case, must guard themselves by saying that the appearance is true; not in itself, but for him to whom it appears, and at, the time when it appears, and in the way and manner in which it appears. And if they make out a case without this qualification, as a result they will soon contradict themselves;for it is possible in the case of the same man for a thing to appear honey to the sight, but not to the taste, and for things to appear different to the sight of each of his two eyes, if their sight is unequal. For to those who assert (for the reasons previously stated2) that appearances are true, and that all things are therefore equally false and true, because they do not appear the same to all, nor always the same to the same person, but often have contrary appearances at the same time(since if one crosses the fingers touch says that an object is two, while sight says that it is only one3), we shall say "but not to the same sense or to the same part of it in the same way and at the same time"; so that with this qualification the appearance will be true.

1 Aristot. Met. 4.4.2.

2 Aristot. Met. 4.5.7-17.

3 Cf. Aristot. Problemata 958b 14, 959a 5, 965a 36.

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