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[1018a] [1] but accidental predications are not so, but are made of individuals and with a single application. " Socrates" and "cultured Socrates" seem to be the same; but " Socrates" is not a class-name, and hence we do not say "every Socrates" as we say "every man."Some things are said to be "the same" in this sense, but (b) others in an essential sense, in the same number of senses as "the one" is essentially one; for things whose matter is formally or numerically one, and things whose substance is one, are said to be the same. Thus "sameness" is clearly a kind of unity in the being, either of two or more things, or of one thing treated as more than one; as, e.g., when a thing is consistent with itself; for it is then treated as two.

Things are called "other" of which either the forms or the matter or the definition of essence is more than one; and in general "other" is used in the opposite senses to "same."

Things are called "different" which, while being in a sense the same, are "other" not only numerically, but formally or generically or analogically; also things whose genus is not the same; and contraries; and all things which contain "otherness" in their essence.

Things are called "like" which have the same attributes in all respects; or more of those attributes the same than different; or whose quality is one. Also that which has a majority or the more important of those attributes of something else in respect of which change is possible (i.e. the contraries) is like that thing. And "unlike" is used in the opposite senses to "like."

[20] The term "opposite" is applied to (a) contradiction; (b) contraries; (c) relative terms; (d) privation; (e) state; (f) extremes; e.g. in the process of generation and destruction. And (g) all things which cannot be present at the same time in that which admits of them both are called opposites; either themselves or their constituents. "Grey" and "white" do not apply at the same time to the same thing, and hence their constituents are opposite.

"Contrary" means: (a) attributes, generically different, which cannot apply at the same time to the same thing. (b) The most different attributes in the same genus; or (c) in the same subject; or (d) falling under the same faculty. (e) Things whose difference is greatest absolutely, or in genus, or in species.Other things are called "contrary" either because they possess attributes of this kind, or because they are receptive of them, or because they are productive of or liable to them, or actually produce or incur them, or are rejections or acquisitions or possessions or privations of such attributes.And since "one" and "being" have various meanings, all other terms which are used in relation to "one" and "being" must vary in meaning with them; and so "same," "other" and "contrary" must so vary, and so must have a separate meaning in accordance with each category.

Things are called "other in species" (a) which belong to the same genus and are not subordinate one to the other;

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