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[1022a] [1] All other things are so called in virtue of these, because they either produce or possess something of this kind, or conform to it, or are referred in some way or other to things which are perfect in the primary sense.

"Limit" means: (a) The furthest part of each thing, and the first point outside which no part of a thing can be found, and the first point within which all parts are contained. (b) Any form of magnitude or of something possessing magnitude.(c) The end of each thing. (This end is that to which motion and action proceed, and not the end from which. But sometimes it is both the end from which and the end to which, i.e. the final cause.) (d) The reality or essence of each thing; for this is the limit of our knowledge of it, and if it is a limit of the knowledge, it is also a limit of the thing. Thus it is obvious that "limit" has not only as many senses as "beginning" but even more; because the beginning is a kind of limit, but not every limit is a beginning.

"That in virtue of which" has various meanings. (a) The form or essence of each individual thing; e.g., that in virtue of which a man is good is "goodness itself." (b) The immediate substrate in which a thing is naturally produced; as, e.g., color is produced in the surface of things. Thus "that in virtue of which" in the primary sense is the form , and in the secondary sense, as it were, the matter of each thing, and the immediate substrate.And in general "that in virtue of which" will exist in the same number of senses as "cause." [20] For we say indifferently "in virtue of what has he come?" or "for what reason has he come?" and "in virtue of what has he inferred or inferred falsely?" or "what is the cause of his inference or false inference?" (And further, there is the positional sense of καθ᾽ , "in which he stands," or "in which he walks"; all these examples denote place or position.)

Hence "in virtue of itself" must also have various meanings. It denotes (a) The essence of each particular; e.g., Callias is in virtue of himself Callias and the essence of Callias. (b) Everything contained in the definition; e.g., Callias is in virtue of himself an animal, because "animal" is present in the definition, since Callias is a kind of animal.(c) Any attribute which a thing has received directly in itself or in any of its parts; e.g., the surface is white in virtue of itself; and man lives in virtue of himself, because the soul is a part of the man, and life is directly contained in it. (d) That which has no other cause. Man has many causes: "animal," "twofooted," etc.; but nevertheless man is in virtue of himself man. (e) All things which belong to a thing alone and qua alone; and hence that which is separate is "in virtue of itself."1

1 This seems to be a slightly irrelevant reference to καθ᾽ ἁυτό in the sense of "independent"; but corruption in the text has made the true reading uncertain.

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