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[9] If this is so, it is obvious that all those who definitely lay down, for instance, what should be the contents of the exordium or the narrative, or of the other parts of the discourse, are bringing under the rules of art what is outside the subject; for the only thing to which their attention is devoted
is how to put the judge into a certain frame of mind. They give no account of the artificial proofs,1 which make a man a master of rhetorical argument.

1 Systematic logical proofs (enthymeme, for example), including testimony as to character and appeals to the emotions (2.3), which the rhetorician has to invent ( εὑρεῖν, inventio) for use in particular cases. They are contrasted with “inartificial” proofs, which have nothing to do with the rules of the art, but are already in existence, and only need to be made use of. The former are dealt with in chs. 4-14, the latter in ch. 15 of this book.

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