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1 προαίρεσις （premeditation, deliberate or moral choice） is always voluntary, but all voluntary action is not premeditated; we sometimes act on the spur of the moment. Choice is a voluntary act, the result of deliberate counsel, including the use of reason and knowledge. In Aristot. Nic. Eth. 11 Aristotle defines προαίρεσις as “a deliberate appetition of （longing for, ὄρεξις） things in our power,” as to which we should necessarily be well-informed.
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