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[3] And as Homer often, by making use of metaphor, speaks of inanimate things as if they were animate; and it is to creating actuality in all such cases that his popularity is due, as in the following examples: “ Again the ruthless stone rolled down to the plain.1

” “ The arrow flew.2

” “ [The arrow] eager to fly [towards the crowd].3


“ [The spears] were buried in the ground, longing to take their fill of flesh.4

” “ The spear-point sped eagerly through his breast.5

”. For in all these examples there is appearance of actuality, since the objects are represented as animate: “the shameless stone,” “the eager spear-point,” and the rest express actuality. Homer has attached these attributes by the employment of the proportional metaphor; for as the stone is to Sisyphus, so is the shameless one to the one who is shamelessly treated.

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