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1 Heraclitus of Ephesus （c. 535-475）. His chief work was on Nature. From the harshness of his language and the carelessness of his style he was called ὁ σκοτεινός （the obscure）. According to him, fire was the origin of all things; all things become fire, and then fire becomes all other things. All things are in a constant state of flux; all is the same and yet not the same. Knowledge is founded upon sensual perception, but only the gods possess knowledge in perfection.
2 Or, “although this reason exists for ever men are born . . . without understanding” （Welldon）.
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