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Among the nations that speak the same language, the ancients placed the Cataonians by themselves, contra-dis- tinguishing them from the Cappadocians, whom they considered as a different people. In the enumeration of the nations they placed Cataonia after Cappadocia, then the Euphrates, and the nations on the other side of that river, so as to include even Melitene in Cataonia, although Melitene lies between Cataonia and the Euphrates, approaches close to Commagene, and constitutes a tenth portion of Cappadocia, according to the division of the country into ten provinces. For the kings in our times who preceded Archelaus1 usually divided the kingdom of Cappadocia in this manner.

Cataonia is a tenth portion of Cappadocia. In our time each province had its own governor, and since no difference appears in the language of the Cataonians compared with that of the other Cappadocians, nor any difference in their customs, it is surprising how entirely the characteristic marks of a foreign nation have disappeared, yet they were distinct nations; Ariarathes, the first who bore the title of king of the Cappadocians, annexed the Cataonians to Cappadocia.

1 Archeaus received from Augustus (B. C. 20) some parts of Cilicia on the coast and the Lesser Armenia. In A. D. 15 Tiberius treacherously invited him to Rome, and kept him there. He died, probably about A. D. 17, and his kingdom was made a Roman province.

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