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Between Chalcedon and Heracleia are several rivers, as the Psillis,1 the Calpas, and the Sangarius, of which last the poet makes mention.2 It has its source at the village Sangias, at the distance of 150 stadia from Pessinus. It flows through the greater part of Phrygia Epictetus, and a part also of Bithynia, so that it is distant from Nicomedia a little more than 300 stadia, where the river Gallus unites with it. The latter river has its source at Modra in Phrygia on the Hellespont, which is the same country as the Epictetus, and was formerly occupied by the Bithynians.

The Sangarius thus increased in bulk, and navigable, although not so formerly, is the boundary of Bithynia at the part of the coast where it discharges itself. In front of this coast is the island Thynia.

In the territory of Heracleia grows the aconite.

This city is distant from the temple at Chalcedon about 1500, and from the Sangarius 500, stadia.

1 Some of the smaller mountain streams which descend from the range of hills extending from Scutari to the Sangaria. According to Gossellin the Psillis may be the river near Tschileh, and the Calpas the river near Kerpeh.

2 Il. xvi. 719.

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