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Next to Smyrna is Leucæ,1 a small city, which Aris- tonicus caused to revolt, after the death of Attalus, the son of Philometor,2 under pretence of being descended from the royal family, but with the intention of usurping the kingdom. He was, however, defeated in a naval engagement by the Ephesians, near the Cumæan district, and expelled. But he went into the interior of the country, and quickly collected together a multitude of needy people and slaves, who were induced to follow him by the hope of obtaining their freedom, whom he called Heliopolitæ. He first surprised Thyateira,3 he then got possession of Apollonis, and had an intention of making himself master of other fortresses, but he did not maintain his ground long. The cities sent immediately a large body of troops against him, and were supported by Nicomedes the Bithynian and the kings of Cappadocia. Afterwards five deputies of the Romans came, then an army, and the consul Publius Crassus. These were followed by M. Perperna, who took Aristonicus prisoner, sent him to Rome, and thus put an end to the war. Aristonicus died in prison; Perperna died of some disease, and Crassus fell near Leucæ, in a skirmish with some people who had attacked him from an ambuscade. Manius Aquillius the consul came afterwards, with ten lieutenants; he regulated the affairs of the province, and established that form of government which continues at present.

After Leucæ follows Phocæa,4 situated on a bay. I have mentioned this place in the description of Massalia.5 Then follow the confines of the Ionians and the Æolians. I have already spoken of these.6

In the interior of the Ionian maritime territory there remain to be described the places about the road leading from Ephesus, as far as Antioch7 and the Mæander.

This tract is occupied by a mixed population of Lydians, Carians, and Greeks.

1 Leokaes?

2 B. xiii. c. iv. §2.

3 Ak-Hissar.

4 Karadscha-Fokia.

5 Marseilles, b. iv. ch. i. §4.

6 B. xiii. ch. i. 2.

7 Jenidscheh.

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