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Seleucis is the best of the above-mentioned portions of Syria. It is called and is a Tetrapolis, and derives its name from the four distinguished cities which it contains; for there are more than four cities, but the four largest are Antioch Epidaphne,1 Seleuceia in Pieria,2 Apameia,3 and Laodiceia.4 They were called Sisters from the concord which existed between them. They were founded by Seleucus Nicator. The largest bore the name of his father, and the strongest his own. Of the others, Apameia had its name from his wife Apama, and Laodiceia from his mother.

In conformity with its character of Tetrapolis, Seleucis, according to Poseidonius, was divided into four satrapies; Cœle-Syria into the same number, but [Commagene, like] Mesopotamia, consisted of one.5

Antioch also is a Tetrapolis, consisting (as the name im- plies) of four portions, each of which has its own, and all of them a common wall.6

[Seleucus] Nicator founded the first of these portions, transferring thither settlers from Antigonia, which a short time before Antigonus, son of Philip, had built near it. The second was built by the general body of settlers; the third by Seleucus, the son of Callinicus; the fourth by Antiochus, the son of Epiphanes.

1 Antakieh.

2 Modern conjecture has identified it with Shogh and Divertigi.

3 Kulat-el-Mudik.

4 Ladikiyeh.

5 Mesopotamia in the text is no doubt an error of the copyist. We ought probably to read Commagene. Groskurd proposes to read ‘Commagene, like Mesopotamia, consisted of one satrapy.’ Groskurd's emendation of the text is followed, although not approved of, by Kramer.

6 These four portions were no doubt formed by the four hills contained within the circuit of Antioch. The circuit wall existed in the time of Pococke. The detailed and exact description given of it by this learned traveller, as also his plan of Antioch, agree with Strabo's account. Pococke, Descrip. of the East, ii. p. 190.

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