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On this coast was a city called Iol,1 which Juba, the father of Ptolemy, rebuilt and changed its name to Cæsarea. It has a harbour and a small island in front of it. Between Cæsarea and Tretum2 is a large harbour called Salda,3 which now forms the boundary between the territories subject to Juba and the Romans; for the country has been subject to many changes, having had numerous occupants; and the Romans, at various times, have treated some among them as friends, others as enemies, conceding or taking away territories without observing any established rule.

The country on the side of Mauretania produced a greater revenue and was more powerful, whilst that near Carthage and of the Masylies was more flourishing and better furnished with buildings, although it suffered first in the Carthaginian wars, and subsequently during the war with Jugurtha, who successfully besieged Adarbal in Ityca (Utica),4 and put him to death as a friend of the Romans, and thus involved the whole country in war. Other wars succeeded one another, of which the last was that between divus Cæsar and Scipio, in which Juba lost his life. The death of the leaders was accompanied by the destruction of the cities Tisiæus,5 Vaga,6 Thala,7 Capsa8 (the treasure-hold of Jugurtha), Zama,9 and Zincha. To these must be added those cities in the neighbourhood of which divus Cæsar obtained victories over Scipio, namely, first at Ruspinum,10 then at Uzita, then at Thapsus and the neighbouring lake, and at many others. Near are the free cities Zella and Acholla.11 Cæsar also captured at the first onset the island Cercinna,12 and Thena, a small city on the seacoast. Some of these cities utterly disappeared, and others were abandoned, being partly destroyed. Phara was burnt by the cavalry of Scipio.

1 Cherchell, a corruption of Cæsarea-Iol.

2 Ebba Ras (the seven capes) or Bougaron.

3 Bougie.

4 Shaw has the merit of having first pointed out the true situation of this celebrated city. Before his time it was sought sometimes at Biserta, sometimes at Farina, but he fixed it near the little miserable ‘Douar,’ which has a holy tomb called Boushatter, and with this view many writers have agreed. Adherbal, however, was besieged and captured in Cirta (Constantine), B. C. 109.

5 An unknown name. Letronne supposes Thisica to be meant, mentioned by Ptolemy, iv. 3.

6 Vaga or Vacca, now Bayjah.

7 Shaw takes Ferreanah to have been the ancient Thala or Telepte, but Lapie seeks it at Haouch-el-Khima.

8 Cafsa.

9 Jama.

10 Probably near the ruins of Leptis Parva.

11 El Aliah.

12 Karkenah or Ramlah.

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