Roman Dominion in Italy
It was in the nineteenth year after the sea-fight at
B. C. 387-386. The rise of the Roman dominion may be traced from the retirement of the Gauls from the city. From that time one nation after another in Italy fell into their hands.
, and the sixteenth before the battle
at Leuctra; the year in which the Lacedaemonians made what is called the Peace of
Antalcidas with the King of Persia
; the year
in which the elder Dionysius was besieging
after beating the Italian Greeks on
the river Elleporus; and in which the Gauls
itself by storm and were occupying
the whole of it except the Capitol. With these
Gauls the Romans made a treaty and settlement
which they were content to accept: and having thus become
beyond all expectation once more masters of their own country,
they made a start in their career of expansion; and in the
succeeding period engaged in various wars with their neighbours.
First, by dint of valour, and the good
fortune which attended them in the field, they
mastered all the Latini; then they went to war with the
Etruscans; then with the Celts; and next with
the Samnites, who lived on the eastern and
northern frontiers of Latium
The Etruscans, Gauls, and Samnites.
Some time after
this the Tarentines insulted the ambassadors of Rome
in fear of the consequences, invited and obtained the assistance of Pyrrhus.
This happened in the year
before the Gauls invaded Greece
, some of whom
perished near Delphi
, while others crossed into
. Then it was that the Romans—having reduced the
Etruscans and Samnites to obedience, and conquered the
Italian Celts in many battles—attempted for the first time the
reduction of the rest of Italy
for whose possessions they were about to fight
they affected to regard, not in the light of foreigners, but as
already for the most part belonging and pertaining to themselves. The experience gained from their contests with the
Samnites and the Celts had served as a genuine training in
the art of war.
Pyrrhus finally quits Italy, B. C. 274.
Accordingly, they entered upon the war with
spirit, drove Pyrrhus from Italy
, and then undertook to fight with and subdue those who had
taken part with him. They succeeded everywhere
to a marvel, and reduced to obedience all the tribes
except the Celts; after which they undertook
to besiege some of their own citizens, who at that time were