Geography of Celtiberia
The Turduli live on the immediate north Tribes in Boetica
of the Turdetani. . . .
The fertility of their country has had a civilising influence
on the Turditani and on their Celtic kinsfolk, and taught
them the art of social life. . . .
The Pillars are at either side of the straits. . . .
There is a fountain in the Heracleum at Gades, the water
of which is sweet and is reached by steps.
This fountain has a tide which rises and falls
exactly in the reverse order of the sea tide.
When it is high tide at sea it is low tide in the fountain, and
high in the fountain when it is low at sea. The explanation
of this is that the wind, which rises from the bowels of the
earth to the surface, is prevented from finding its natural
egress when the earth is covered with water at the rise of the
tide, and being thus turned back into the interior of the earth,
it stops up the underground channels of the fountain and
produces a deficiency of water; but when the earth is again
uncovered, the wind having once more found an easy egress,
sets the veins of the fountain free again, and the water spurts
There are very large silver mines about twenty stades
The process of producing silver in the mines near New Carthage.
from New Carthage, extending to a circuit of
four hundred stades, in which forty thousand
men are continually employed, who produce
for the benefit of the Roman people twenty-five thousand drachmae a day. It would take too long to
describe the whole process of working them, but I may mention that the alluvial soil containing the silver ore is first
broken up, and sifted in sieves held in water; that then the
deposit is again broken, and being again filtered with running
water, is broken a third time. This is done five times; the
fifth deposit is smelted, and, the lead having been run off,
pure silver remains. . . .
The Anas and Boetis both flow from Celtiberia, their streams being about nine hundred
The Guadiana and Guadalquivir.
stades apart. . . .
Among other cities of the Vaccaei and Celtiberians are
Segesama and Intercatia. . . .
One of the Iberian kings had such a magnificent and
richly furnished palace, that he rivalled the
luxury of the Phaeacians, except that the vessels
standing in the interior of the house, though
made of gold and silver, were full of barley-wine. . . .