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IX. Such are the properties of rain waters, and of those from snow and ice. Stone, kidney disease, strangury and sciatica are very apt to attack people, and ruptures occur, when they drink water of very many different kinds, or from large rivers, into which other rivers flow, or from a lake fed by many streams of various sorts, and whenever they use foreign waters coming from a great, not a short, distance. For one water cannot be like another ; some are sweet, others are impregnated with salt and alum, others flow from hot springs. These when mixed up together disagree, and the strongest always prevails. But the strongest is not always the same ; sometimes it is one, sometimes another, according to the winds. One has its strength from a north wind, another from the south wind, and similarly with the others. Such waters then must leave a sediment of mud and sand in the vessels, and drinking them causes the diseases mentioned before. That there are exceptions I will proceed to set forth.

Those whose bowels are loose and healthy, whose bladder is not feverish, and the mouth of whose bladder is not over narrow, pass water easily, and no

[p. 97] solid matter forms in their bladder. But feverishness of the bowels must be accompanied by feverishness of the bladder. For when it is abnormally heated its mouth is inflamed. In this condition it does not expel the urine, but concocts and heats it within itself. The finest part is separated off, and the clearest passes out as urine, while the thickest and muddiest part forms solid matter, which, though at first small, grows in course of time. For as it rolls about in the urine it coalesces with whatever solid matter forms, and so it grows and hardens. When the patient makes water, it is forced by the urine to fall against the mouth of the bladder, and staying the flow of the urine causes violent pain. So that boys that suffer from stone rub and pull at their privy parts, under the impression that there lies the cause of their making water.1 That my account is correct is shown by the fact that sufferers from stone emit urine that is very clear, as the thickest and muddiest part of it remains and solidifies. This in most cases is the cause of stone. Children get stone also from the milk, if it be unhealthy, too hot and bilious. For it heats the bowels and the bladder, so that the urine is heated and affected as I have described. And my opinion is that we should give to young children only very diluted wine, which heats and parches the veins less. Females suffer less from stone. For their urethra is short and broad, so that the urine is easily expelled. Nor do they rub the privy parts as do males, nor handle the

[p. 99] urethra. For it opens directly into the privy parts, which is not so with males, nor is their urethra wide. And they drink more than boys do.

1 Coray's emendation would mean, "the cause of the stoppage," an attractive alteration.

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