In the first place, the structure of the spine should be known, for this knowledge
is requisite in many diseases. Wherefore, on the side turned to the
belly (the anterior?
) the vertebrae are in a regular line, and are
united together by a pulpy and nervous band of connection, originating
from the cartilages, and extending to the spinal marrow. There are
certain other nervous cords which decussate, are attached (to the
), and are extended from both sides of them. But we will
describe in another work the connections of the veins and arteries,
numbers, their qualities, their origin, their functional offices
in particular parts, in what sort of sheaths the spinal marrow is
inclosed, where they arise, where they terminate, how they communicate,
and what their uses. On the opposite side (behind?
) the vertebrae
are connected together by a ginglymoid articulation. Common cords
) are extended to all parts, both those within and without.
There is an osseous process from the posterior part of all and each
of the vertebra, whether greater or smaller; and upon these processes
there are cartilaginous epiphyses, and from them arise nervous productions
), akin to the external nerves (tonoi
). The ribs are united
to them, having their heads inclined rather to the inside than the
out, and every one of them is articulated with the vertebrae; and
the ribs in man are very curved, and, as it were, arched. The space
between the ribs and the processes of the vertebrae is filled on both
sides by muscles, which arise from the neck and extend to the loins
). The spine, longitudinally, is a straight line slightly curved;
from the os sacrum to the great vertebra which is connected with the
articulation of the femur, the spine inclines backward, for the bladder,
the organs of generation, and the loose portion of the rectum, are
situated there. From this, to the attachment of the diaphragm, the
spine inclines inward, and this portion alone, from the internal parts,
gives origin to muscles, which are called psoae
. From this to the
great vertebra (seventh cervical?
) which is above the tops of the
shoulders, it is convex behind lengthways; but it is more in appearance
than it really is, for the spinous processes are highest in the middle,
and less so above and below. The region of the neck is convex before.