#### PROPOSITION 8.

If in a right-angled triangle a perpendicular be drawn from the right angle to the base, the triangles adjoining the perpendicular are similar both to the whole and to one another.

Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC right, and let AD be drawn from A perpendicular to BC; I say that each of the triangles ABD, ADC is similar to the whole ABC and, further, they are similar to one another.

For, since the angle BAC is equal to the angle ADB, for each is right, and the angle at B is common to the two triangles ABC and ABD, therefore the remaining angle ACB is equal to the remaining angle BAD; [I. 32] therefore the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle ABD.

Therefore, as BC which subtends the right angle in the triangle ABC is to BA which subtends the right angle in the triangle ABD, so is AB itself which subtends the angle at C in the triangle ABC to BD which subtends the equal angle BAD in the triangle ABD, and so also is AC to AD which subtends the angle at B common to the two triangles. [VI. 4]

Therefore the triangle ABC is both equiangular to the triangle ABD and has the sides about the equal angles proportional.

Therefore the triangle ABC is similar to the triangle ABD. [VI. Def. 1]

Similarly we can prove that the triangle ABC is also similar to the triangle ADC; therefore each of the triangles ABD, ADC is similar to the whole ABC.

I say next that the triangles ABD, ADC are also similar to one another.

For, since the right angle BDA is equal to the right angle ADC, and moreover the angle BAD was also proved equal to the angle at C, therefore the remaining angle at B is also equal to the remaining angle DAC; [I. 32] therefore the triangle ABD is equiangular with the triangle ADC.

Therefore, as BD which subtends the angle BAD in the triangle ABD is to DA which subtends the angle at C in the triangle ADC equal to the angle BAD, so is AD itself which subtends the angle at B in the triangle ABD to DC which subtends the angle DAC in the triangle ADC equal to the angle at B, and so also is BA to AC, these sides subtending the right angles; [VI. 4] therefore the triangle ABD is similar to the triangle ADC. [VI. Def. 1]

Therefore etc.

#### PORISM.

From this it is clear that, if in a right-angled triangle a perpendicular be drawn from the right angle to the base, the straight line so drawn is a mean proportional between the segments of the base. Q. E. D.