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1 29. xxxiv. 8-17. The surprise attack on two camps (v. 7 —vi. 9) made no use of an acies.
2 A Tyrian colony and the most important town in the region, now Sousse, 20 miles north-west of Leptis Minor (Lemta), where Hannibal had landed. But he immediately established his winter camp at Hadrumetum. Polybius cannot have failed to give the time and place of Hannibal's landing in lost chapters from the beginning of Book XV.; for he is in Africa already at iii. 5, if not at i. 10 f. It was now autumn, 203 B.C. He would not have risked a winter passage. Cf. De Sanctis 545 ff., 586 f.; Scullard 326 f.
3 If we could follow Livy here we should place the final battle within an incredibly short time after Hannibal's landing. That this was the case no one can believe after comparing the passage Livy must have had before him, or tried to recall, as he wrote our sentence. For Polybius' “after a few days” (v. 3) makes no connection with the landing, but merely with the receipt of an urgent message from Carthage. That may have come to him many months —even a year —after disembarkation. Hannibal would be the last to shorten the long preparation indispensable to the making of an army out of his heterogeneous forces.
4 Probably Zama Regia, ca. 90 m.p. due west of Hadrumetum (Sousse). An old Numidian city, it is now Seba Biar, on the edge of a plain just west of the long dorsal ridge extending from Cap Bon south-west some distance beyond Kasserine and Tebessa. Lying north of Maktar this city was a residence of Jugurtha (Sallust 56-61); strongly fortified by King Juba I.; Bell. Afr. 91 f., 97 (Caesar leaves Sallust there as proconsul); Vitruvius VIII. iii. 24. Captured by Sextius in 41 B.C. (Dio Cass. XLVIII. xxiii. 4), it long lay desolate (Strabo XVII. iii. 9, 12). Absence of ruins from the Empire shows that the city was not rebuilt. Polybius plainly indicates that the battle was considerably farther inland than Hannibal's first position at Zama (v. 14; vi. 2). Cf. p. 472, n. 1. For modern works and the controverted questions see Appendix.
5 B.C. 202
6 The story of the scouts is from Polybius XV. v. 4-7, as also the following figures for Masinissa's forces (§ 12).
7 Cf. xix. 11.
8 B.C. 202
9 Polybius' name for the place is Margaron, occurring nowhere else. It is accordingly altered by his editors to correspond with the better class of Livy MSS. —a bold correction, it must be admitted. The site of Naraggara is thought to be occupied by Sidi Youssef, on the boundary between Tunisia and Algeria. It was ca. 52 Roman miles west of Zama Regia. Cf. Appendix, esp. p. 547.
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