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1 One might expect paludatus cum lictoribus; I have however retained the reading of the MSS.: cf. XLI. x. 5; 7; 13; XLV. xxxix. 11 (in the first of these Gronovius conjectured paludatus sine lictoribus), in which the same phrase occurs.
2 Livy's elliptical neque enim suggests that if Philip had been before Athens a larger relief expedition would have been necessary.
3 Livy here summarizes the activities of Philip during the campaign of 200 B.C. before the arrival of Sulpicius in the late summer or early autumn of that year. He resumes the narrative dealing with Sulpicius in xxii. 4 below.
4 Philip's attack upon this famous city on the Hellespont was part of the aggressive campaign against the Greek cities on the islands and in Asia Minor, some of which were free, while others belonged to the Ptolemies, whose empire he had agreed with Antiochus (see below) to dismember. His policy threatened both Pergamum and Rhodes (cf. the Introductory Note) and brought them into the war.
5 Cf. Polyb. III. ii. 8. The death of Ptolemy Philopator (cf. the note on ii. 3 above) gave Philip and Antiochus their apparent opportunity to expand at the expense of the boy Epiphanes. The treaty was probably made in 203 B.C.
6 Livy here summarizes briefly and somewhat inaccurately the events leading up to Roman intervention in the east. In 201 B.C., in consequence of the treaty mentioned in sect. 5 above, Philip had begun operations against the Egyptian possessions in Thrace, northern Asia Minor, and the Cyclades. This brought him into conflict with Pergamum, already allied with Athens, and with Rhodes. At the approach of winter he had withdrawn to Europe, after a campaign somewhat more successful than Livy's account intimates. Athens was not immediately involved in this war, but was embroiled with Philip in the manner described in the following sections. The alignment is then: Philip and the Aetolian League vs. Athens, Pergamum, Rhodes, Rome. Antiochus, allied with both Rome and Philip, was not involved directly, nor was Ptolemy, allied with Rome, although Philip's attack on his possessions precipitated the war.
7 B.C. 200
8 Acarnania, in the north-west, was a part of the Aetolian League.
9 See, for this alliance, XXIX. xii. 14.
10 Polybius (XVI. xxv. 5) similarly describes this scene.
11 B.C. 200
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