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1 He borrows this notion of the oat being wheat in a diseased state, from Theophrastus. Singularly enough, it was adopted by the learned Buffon.
2 From Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. B. viii. c. 10.
3 This but rarely happens in our climates, as Fée remarks.
4 The grains are sometimes, though rarely, found devoured on the stalk, by a kind of larvæ.
5 Some coleopterous insect, probably, now unknown, and not the Can- tharis vesicatoria, or "Spanish fly," as some have imagined. Dioscorides and Athenæus state to the same effect as Pliny.
6 The proper influence of the humidity of the earth would naturally be impeded by a coating of these substances.
7 This plant has not been identified; but none of the gramineous plants are noxious to cattle, with the exception of the seed of darnel.
8 Lolium temulentum of Linnæus.
9 See B. xxi. c. 58.
10 "Carduus." A general term, probably including the genera Centaurea (the prickly kinds), Serratula, Carduus, and Cnicus. The Centaurca solstitialis is the thistle most commonly found in the south of Europe.
11 Gallium Aparine of Linnæus.
12 Barley, wheat, oats, and millet have, each its own "rubigo" or mildew, known to modern botany as uredo.
13 The Erineum vitis of botanists.
14 This rarely happens except through the violence of wind or rain.
15 See c. 32 of this Book.
16 The Cuscuta Europæa, probably, of Linnæus; one of the Convolvuli.
17 "Æra." It is generally considered to be the same with darnel, though Pliny probably looked upon them as different.
18 The Ægilops ovata, probably, of Linnæus. Dalechamps and Hardouin identify it with the barren oat, the Avena sterilis of Linnæus.
20 Pliny has here committed a singular error in translating from Theophrastus, de Causis, B. iv. c. 14, who only says that a cold wind in the vicinity of Philippi makes the beans difficult to cook or boil, ἀτεράμονες. From this word he has coined two imaginary plants, the "ateramon," and the "teramon." Hardouin defends Pliny, by suggesting that he has borrowed the passage from another source, while Fée doubts if he really understood the Greek language.
21 More probably one of the Coleoptera. He borrows from Theophrastus, Hist. Anim. B. viii. c. 10.
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