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1 The present Book is translated by the late Dr. Bostock, the translation being corrected by the readings of the Bamberg MS., which do not appear to have come under his notice. Some Notes by Dr. Bostock will be also found at the commencement of Books 33 and 35; they are distinguished by the initial B.
2 "Æris Metalla." The word "Æs" does not entirely correspond to our word "brass;" the brass of the moderns being a compound of copper and zinc, while the "Æs" of the ancients was mostly composed of copper and tin, and therefore, would be more correctly designated by the word "bronze." But this last term is now so generally appropriated to works of art, that it would seem preferable to employ in most cases the more general terms "copper" or "brass." For an excellent account of the "Æs" of the ancients, see Smith's Dict. Antiq. "Æs."—B. Mr. Westmacott, in the above-mentioned article, says that the ancient "Æs" has been found, upon analysis, to contain no zinc, but in nearly every instance to be a mixture of copper and tin, like our bronze. Beckmann says, on the other hand, that the mixture of zinc and copper now called "brass," first discovered by ores, abundant in zinc, was certainly known to the ancients. "In the course of time, an ore, which must have been calamine, was added to copper while melting, to give it a yellow colour." Hist. Inv. Vol. II. pp. 32, 33. Bohn's Edition. There can be little doubt that the native Cadmia of Chapter 22 of this Book was our Calamine, hydrosilicate of zinc, or carbonate of zinc, or else copper ore impregnated with calamine.
3 In B. xxxiii. c. 13.
4 "Stipis auctoritas." The standard in money payments.
5 These terms must have come into use when brass, "æs," was the ordinary medium of circulation.—B. Their meaning is, "soldiers' pay," "tribunes of the treasury," the "public treasury," "made bondmen for debt," and "mulcted of their pay."
6 In B. xxxiii. c. 13.—B.
7 "Collegium." The colleges of the priests and of the augurs being the first two associated bodies.—B.
8 In B. xxxiii. c. 31, where we have an account of the ores of silver.—B.
9 Pliny again refers to this mineral in the 22d Chapter. We have no means of ascertaining, with certainty, what is the substance to which this name was applied by the ancients. The ores of copper are very numerous, and of various chemical constitutions: the most abundant, and those most commonly employed in the production of the pure metal, are the sulphurets, more especially what is termed copper pyrites, and the oxides. It has been supposed, by some commentators, that the Cadmia of the ancients was Calamine, which is an ore of zinc; but we may be confident that the Æs of the ancients could not be produced from this substance, because, as has been stated above, the Æs contains no zinc. I must, however, observe that the contrary opinion is maintained by M. Delafosse.—B. See Note 2 above.
10 The inhabitants of Bergamum, the modern Bergamo.—B. See B. iii. c. 21.
11 Aristotle gives the same account of the copper ore of Cyprus. Chalcitis is also spoken of by Dioscorides, as an ore of copper.—B. See further as to "Chaicitis," in Chapter 29 of this Book.
12 There has been much discussion respecting the nature of this substance, and the derivation of the word. Hardouin conceives it probable that it was originally written "orichaleum," i.e. "mountain brass" or "copper."—B. Ajasson considers it to be native brass, a mixture of copper and zinc. In the later writers it signifies artificial brass. The exact composition of this metal is still unknown, but there is little doubt that Hardouin is right in his supposition as to the origin of the name.
13 Possibly so called from Sallustius Crispus, the historian, who was one of the secretaries of Augustus.
14 There is some doubt respecting the locality of these people; they are enumerated by Pliny among the inhabitants of the mountainous districts of Savoy, B. iii. c. 24, and are referred to by Ptolemy.—B.
16 It was named "Marian," after the celebrated Marius, and "Corduban," from the place whence it was procured; probably the mountains near Corduba, in Spain, well known as the birth-place of the two Senecas and of Lucan.—B. See B. iii. c. 3, and B. xix. c. 43.
17 No light is thrown upon the nature either of Cadmia or Aurichalcum by this statement; we only learn from it that different compounds, or substances possessing different physical properties, went under the common appellation of Æs, and were, each of them, employed in the formation of coins.—B.
18 "Dupondiariis." The "as," it must be remembered, originally weighed one pound. See B. xxxiii. c. 13, and the Introduction to Vol. III. 19 He alludes to the ancient works of art in this compound metal.
19 He alludes to the ancient works of art in this compound metal.
20 The art of making compound metals.
21 Vulcan, namely.
22 No one has accidentally stumbled upon the art of making this composite metal.
23 We have an account of the destruction of Corinth, and the accidental formation of this compound, in Florus, B. ii. c. 16. Although this account was generally received by the ancients, we may venture to assert, that it cannot be correct; we cannot conceive the possibility of such a fusion taking place during the destruction of the city, or of the complete union of the components, in the mode in which they have been found to exist.—B.
24 B.C. 146.—B.
25 "Trulleos." In an epigram of Martial, B. ix. Ep. 97, the word "trulla" signifies a chamber-pot.
27 The Delian brass is mentioned by Cicero, in his oration "Pro Roscio Amerino," s. 46, and in his Fourth oration "In Verrem," s. 1.—B. Pausanias, in his "Eliaca," says that the Spanish copper, or copper of Tartessus, was the first known.
28 Or Cattle Market: in the Eighth Region of the City. See B. xxxv. c. 7, and Chapter 16 of this Book.
29 A distinguished statuary and engraver on silver. He lived in Olympiad 87. Further mention is made of him by Cicero, Ovid, Strabo, and Pansanias. See also Chapter 19 of this Book.
30 There were several artists of this name. The elder Polycletus, a native either of Sicyon or of Argos, is probably the one here referred to. For further particulars of him, see Chapter 19.
31 The words in the original are, respectively candelabra, superficics, and scapi.—B.
32 Probably a proverbial expression at Rome, as it is employed by Juvenal, in an analogous manner, upon another occasion; Sat. iii. 1. 132.—B. 33 Plutarch speaks of the Geganii as an ancient noble family at Rome.
33 Pultarch speaks of the Geganii as an ancient noble family at Rome.
34 See B. xxxiii. c. 53.
35 A. U. C. 585; we have an account of it in Livy, B. xiv. c. 42.—B.
36 This building is referred to by Velleius Paterculus, in the beginning of the Second Book of his History.—B. According to Aurelius Victor, it was situated in the Ninth Region of the City.
37 The Temple of Vesta is described by Ovid, Fasti, B. vi. 1. 265, et seq.—B.
38 C. Camillus probably, the Roman jurist and friend of Cicero.
39 See end of B. ii.
40 "Triclinia," "abaci," and "monopodia;" these appear to have been couches for dining-tables, tables furnished with cupboards, and tables standing on a single foot. Livy, B. xxxix. c. 6, informs us, that Cneius Manlius, in his triumphal procession, introduced into Rome various articles of Asiatic luxury; "Lectos æratos, vestem stragulam preciosam, monopodia, et abacos." We are not to suppose that the whole of these articles were made of brass, but that certain parts of them were formed of this metal, or else were ornamented with brass.—B.
41 See end of B. ii.
42 "Cortinas tripodum." These articles of furniture consisted of a table or slab, supported by three feet, which was employed, like our sideboards, for the display of plate, at the Roman entertainments.—B.
43 "Lychnuchi pensiles," this term is applied by Suetonius, Julius, s. 37; we may conceive that they were similar to the modern chandeliers.—B
44 This temple was dedicated by Augustus A.U.C. 726. The lamps in it, resembling trees laden with fruit, are mentioned by Victor in his description of the Tenth Quarter of the City.—B.
45 See B. v. c. 32.
46 We have an account of this event in Livy, B. ii. c. 41, in Valerius Maximus, and in Dionysius of Halicarnassus.—B.
48 Pisistratus. These statues are mentioned in the 19th Chapter of this Book, as being the workmanship of Praxiteles.—B.
49 See B. vii. cc. 31, 34: B. viii. c. 74: and B. ix. c. 63.
50 Near the Temple of Janus, in the Eighth Region of the City.
51 The Luperci were the priests of Pan, who, at the celebration of their games, called Lupercalia, were in the habit of running about the streets of Rome, with no other covering than a goat's skin tied about the loins.—B.
52 "Pænula." See B. viii. c. 73.
53 We are informed by Cicero, De Off. B. iii. c. 30, and by Valerius Maximus, B. ii. c. 7, that Marcinus made a treaty with the Numantines, which the senate refused to ratify, and that he was, in consequence, surrendered to the enemy. We may suppose that he regarded the transaction as redounding more to the discredit of the senate than of himself.—B.
54 See end of B. xviii.
55 In the First Region of the City, near the Capenian Gate.
57 Poinsinet remarks that Pliny has forgotten the gilded chariot, with six horses, which Cneius Cornelius dedicated in the Capitol, two hundred years before Augustus; he also refers to an ancient inscription in Gruter, which mentions chariots of this description.—B.
58 Mænius was consul with Furius Camillus, A.U.C. 416; we have an account of his victories over the Latins and other neighbouring nations in Livy, B. viii. c. 14.—B.
59 We have an account of this transaction in Livy, B. viii. c. 14. This trophy is also mentioned by Florus, B. i. c. 11. The "Suggestus" was an elevated place, formed for various purposes, the stage from which the orators addressed the people, the place from which the general addressed his soldiers, and the seat occupied by the emperor at the public games.—B.
60 Florus, B. ii. c. 2, gives an account of the arrangements and equipment of the Carthaginian fleet, the victory of Duillius, and the rostral monument erected in its commemoration.—B.
61 See B. xviii. c. 4.
62 "Unciariâ stipe;" the uncia was the twelfth part of the "as," and the word stips was regarded as equivalent to as, as being the usual pay of the soldiers.—B. See Introduction to Vol. III.
63 See B. xv. c. 20.
64 This circumstance is mentioned by Cicero in his Defence of Milo, § 90–1.—B.
65 We have some account of Hermodorus in Cicero's Tusc. Quæs. B. v. c. 36.—B.
66 See B. x. c. 2, B. xviii. c. 3, and B. xxxiii. c. 7.
67 Livy, B. ii. c. 10, and Valerius Maximus, B. iii. c. 2, give an account of this event. A, Gellius incidentally mentions the statue, and its position in the Comitium, B. iv. c. 5.—B.
68 We are informed by Dion Cassius, that there were eight statues in the Capitol, seven of which were of the kings, and the eighth of Brutus, who overthrew the kingly government; at a later period the statue of Cæsar was placed by the side of that of Brutus.—B.
69 Suetonius, speaking of this temple, remarks, that though dedicated to the brothers Castor and Pollux, it was only known as the Temple of Castor.—B.
70 We have an account of the victory of Tremulus over the Hernici, and of the statue erected in honour of him, in Livy, B. ix. c. 43.—B.
71 This event is referred to by Cicero, Philipp. ix., 5.—B.
72 Florus, B. ii. c. 5, gives an account of the murder of P. Junius and T. Coruncanius.—B.
73 In the Bamberg MS. the reading is "unum se. verbum." Gronovius is probably right in his conjecture that the word is "senatus consulti."
74 By one Leptines, at Laodicea.
75 "Oculatissimo." The place where there was "the most extended eyeshot." It is to this singular expression, probably, that Pliny alludes.
76 "Quod campum Tiberinum gratificata esset ea populo."
77 A.U.C. 441.
78 See B. vii. c. 31.
79 His life has been written by Diogenes Laertius, and he is mentioned by Cicero, de Fin. B. v. c. 19, and by Strabo.—B.
80 In B. xxxiii. c. 46.
81 We have an account of the exploit of Clælia in Livy, B. ii. c. 13, and in Valerius Maximus, B. iii. c. 2: there is a reference to this statue in Seneca, de Consol. c. 16.—B.
82 To King Porsena.
83 See end of B. xvi.
84 Plutarch says that it was uncertain whether the statue was erected to Clælia or to Valcria.—B.
85 A.U.C. 596.—B.
86 See Chapter 9.
87 "In Octaviæ operibus." These were certain public buildings, erected in Rome by Augustus, and named by him after his sister Octavia; they are mentioned by Suetonius.—B.
88 Valerius Maximus refers to this event, but he names the individual Statius Servilius, B. i. c. 8, § 6.—B.
89 See B. xxxiii. cc. 50, 54.
90 We have an account of the attack by Hannibal on Rome in the twenty-sixth Book of Livy, but we have no mention of the particular circumstance here referred to.—B.
91 "Forum Boarium." See Chapter 5.
92 Livy, B. i. c. 19, informs us, that Numa made Janus of a form to denote both peace and war.—B.
93 The mode in which the fingers were placed, so as to serve the purpose here indicated, is supposed to have been by their forming the letters which were the Roman numerals for the figures in question. We are informed that some MSS. of Pliny give the number three hundred and fifty-five only, and there is reason to believe that, in the time of Numa, this was considered to be the actual number of days in the year. Some of the commentators, however, are disposed to read three hundred and sixty-five; and this opinion derives some support from Macrobius, who refers to this statue as indicating this latter number with its fingers.—B. The Bamberg MS. gives three hundred and sixty-five.
94 See end of B. iii.
95 "Misoromæus"—"Roman-hater." See end of B. iii.
96 Pliny himself informs us, in B. xxxv. c. 45, that the statue of Jupiter in the Capitol, erected by Tarquinius Priscus, was formed of earth.—B.
97 The art of moulding or modelling in argillaceous earth; see B. xxxv. cc. 43, 45.
98 See B. xxxvi. c. L, where he informs us that this theatre was hardly one month in use.—B.
99 Hardouin gives several quotations illustrative of his liberality in bestowing ornaments in the City, and his inattention to his domestic concerns.—B.
100 The brothers Lucius and Marcus, the former of whom triumphed in the Mithridatic, the latter in the Macedonian War.—B.
101 See end of B. ii.
102 See B. vii. c. 38.
103 The absolute number of statues assigned to Lysippus differs considerably in the different editions, as is the case in almost every instance where figures are concerned. Pliny gives a further account of his works in the next two Chapters and in the following Book.—B.
104 "Aureum." See B. xxxiii. c. 13, and B. xxxvii. c. 3.
105 In their attack upon Flavius Sabinus, the brother of Vespasian; A.U.C. 822.
106 See B. iv. c. 27.
107 It was a statue of Jupiter.
108 Better known by the name of Q. Fabius Maximus; he acquired the soubriquet of Verrucosus from a large wart on the upper lip.—B.
109 The Colossus of Rhodes was begun by Chares, but he committed suicide, in consequence of having made some mistake in the estimate; the work was completed by Laches, also an inhabitant of Lindos.—B.
110 It remained on the spot where it was thrown down for nearly nine hundred years, until the year 653 A.D., when Moavia, khalif of the Saracens, after the capture of Rhodes, sold the materials; it is said that it required nine hundred camels to remove the remains.—B.
111 Demetrius Poliorcetes. See B. xxxv. c. 36.
112 He is mentioned by Columella, in his Introduction to his work De Re Rusticâ, in connexion with the most celebrated Grecian artists.—B.
113 Suetonius, in describing the temple which Augustus dedicated to Apollo, on the Palatine Hill, speaks of the Portico with the Latin and Greek library.—B.
114 This victory took place A.U.C. 461; we have an account of it in Livy, the concluding Chapter of the Tenth Book.—B.
115 This was a statue of Jupiter, placed on the Alban Mount, twelve miles from Rome. At this place the various states of Latium exercised their religious rites in conjunction with the Romans; it was sometimes called Latialis.—B. See B. iii. c. 9, and Notes; Vol. I. p. 205.
116 The designer of the Colossus at Rhodes.
117 Decius is said by Hardouin to have been a statuary, but nothing is known respecting him or his works.—B. He probably lived about the time of the Consul P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, A.U.C. 697.
118 His country is unknown.
119 See B. iv. c. 33.
120 St. Jerome informs us, that Vespasian removed the head of Nero, and substituted that of the Sun with seven rays. Martial refers to it in the Second Epigram De Spectaculis, and also B. i. Ep. 71.—B.
121 "Parvis admodum surculis." There is, it appears, some difficulty in determining the application of the word surculis to the subject in question, and we have no explanation of it by any of the commentators. Can it refer to the frame of wicker work which contained the model into which the melted metal was poured?—B.
122 This observation has been supposed to imply, that Zenodotus cast his statues in a number of separate pieces, which were afterwards connected together, and not, as was the case with the great Grecian artists, in one entire piece.—B.
123 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.
124 The term signum, which is applied to the Corinthian figures, may mean a medallion, or perhaps a seal-ring or brooch; we only know that it must have been something small, which might be carried about the person, or, at least, easily moved from place to place.—B. Statuette, probably.
125 Her riddle, and its solution by Œdipus, are too well known to need repetition here.
126 In the following Chapter.
127 Consul A.U.C. 787.
128 The "Avenger." In the Forum of Augustus, in the Eighth Region of the City.
129 "Regia." The palace of Minerva, also in the Forum of Augustus.—B.
130 See B. vii. c. 39, B. xxxv. c. 34, and B. xxxvi. c. 4.
131 We have an account of this statue, and of the temple in which it was placed, by Pausanias, B. v. There is no work of Phidias now in existence; the sculptures in the Parthenon were, however, executed by his pupils and under his immediate directions, so that we may form some judgment of his genius and taste.—B. There is a foot in the British Museum, said to be the work of Phidias.
132 An Athenian; see B. xxxvi. c. 5. He is spoken of in high terms by Pausanias and Valerius Maximus.
133 Tutor of Ptolichus of Corcyra, and highly distinguished for his statues of the slayers of the tyrants at Athens. He is mentioned also by Lucian and Pausanias.
134 The reading is uncertain here, the old editions giving "Nestocles." We shall only devote a Note to such artists as are mentioned by other authors besides Pliny.
135 An Athenian; mentioned also by Pausanias.
136 There were probably two artists of this name; one an Argive, tutor of Phidias, and the other a Sicyonian, the person here referred to.
137 A native of Ægina, mentioned by Pausanias. There is also a statuary of Elis of the same name, mentioned by Pausanias, and to whom Thiersch is of opinion reference is here made.
138 See Chapter 5 of this Book.
139 An Argive, mentioned by Pausanias.
140 See Chapter 5 of this Book.
141 Again mentioned by Pliny, as a native of Rhegium in Italy.
142 A native of Paros, mentioned also by Pausanias and Strabo.
143 Probably "Perillus," the artist who made the brazen bull for Phalaris, the tyrant of Agrigentum. The old reading is "Parelius."
144 This and the following word probably mean one person—"Asopodorus the Argive."
145 Perhaps the same person that is mentioned by Pausanias, B. vi. c. 20, as having improved the form of the starting-place at the Olympic Games.
146 Mentioned by Pausanias as an Arcadian, and son of Clitor.
147 A native of Clitorium in Arcadia, and mentioned also by Pausanias.
148 He is said by Pausanias and Athenæus to have been the son, also, of Myron.
149 Son of Motho, and a native of Argos. He was brother and instructor of the younger Polycletus, of Argos. He is mentioned also by Pausanias and Tatian.
150 He is once mentioned by Pausanias, and there is still extant the basis of one of his works, with his name inscribed.
151 It is supposed that there were two artists of this name, both natives of Sicyon, the one grandson of the other. They are both named by Pausanias.
152 Probably a Sicyonian; he is mentioned also by Pausanias.
153 As Pliny mentions two artists of this name, it is impossible to say to which of them Pausanias refers as being an Athenian, in B. vi. c. 4.
154 The elder artist of this name. He was an Athenian, and his sister was the wife of Phocion. He is also mentioned by Plutarch and Pausanias.
155 An Athenian; he is mentioned also by Vitruvius, Pausanias, and Tatian. Winckelmann mentions an inscription relative to him, which, however, appears to be spurious.
156 He is mentioned also by Pausanias, and is supposed by Sillig to have been a Theban.
157 Praxiteles held a high rank among the ancient sculptors, and may be considered as second to Phidias alone; he is frequently mentioned by Pausanias and various other classical writers. Pliny gives a further account of the works of Praxiteles in the two following Books.—B.
158 He was also an eminent painter, and is also mentioned by Quintilian, Dio Chrysostom, and Plutarch.
159 Another reading is "Echion."
160 See B. xxxv. cc. 32, 36.
161 This great artist, a native of Sicyon, has been already mentioned in B. vii. c. 39, and in the two preceding Chapters of the present Book; he is again mentioned in B. xxxv. c. 39.—B. See note 28 above.
162 Also a native of Sicyon. He is mentioned by Tatian.
163 Mentioned also by Pausanias, Plutarch, Strabo, and Appian. The next two names in former editions stand as one, "Euphronides."
164 Supposed to have been an architect, and builder of the Pharos near Alexandria: see B. xxxvi. c. 18. The same person is mentioned also by Strabo, Lucian, and Suidas.
165 An Athenian. He is mentioned also by Pausanias, Plutarch, Diogenes Laertius, and Tatian.
166 See B. xxxv. c. 36.
167 A Sicyonian, pupil of Lysippus. He is also mentioned by Pausanias; see also B. xxxvi. c. 4.
168 Son and pupil of Lysippus. He is mentioned also by Tatian, and by some writers as the instructor of Xenocrates.
169 Sillig thinks that this is a mistake made by Pliny for "Daïppus," a statuary mentioned by Pausanias.
170 Son of Praxiteles, and mentioned by Tatian in conjunction with Euthycrates. The elder Cephisodotus has been already mentioned. See Note 52.
171 Another son of Praxiteles. He is also alluded to by Pausanias, though not by name.
172 His country is uncertain, but he was preceptor of Mygdon of Soli. See B. xxxv. c. 40.
173 Mentioned also by Tatian; his country is unknown.
174 It is doubtful whether Pausanias alludes, in B. vi. c. 4, to this artist, or to the one of the same name mentioned under Olymp. 102. See Note 51.
175 Sillig suggests that this word is an adjective, denoting the country of Polycles, in order to distinguish him from the elder Polycles.
176 We learn from Pausanias that he worked in conjunction with Timarchides. The other artists here mentioned are quite unknown.
177 Sillig, in his "Dictionary of Ancient Artists," observes that "this passage contains many foolish statements." Also that there is "an obvious intermixture in it of truth and falsehood."
178 This is universally admitted to have been one of the most splendid works of art. It is celebrated by various writers; Pausanias speaks of it in B. i. See also B. xxxvi. c. 4.—B.
179 As being made for the Temple of Diana at Ephesus.
180 Probably "Callimorphos," or "Calliste." We learn from Pausanias that it was placed in the Citadel of Athens. Lucian prefers it to every other work of Phidias.
181 A figure of a female "holding keys." The key was one of the attributes of Proserpina, as also of Janus; but the latter was an Italian divinity.
182 "Ædem Fortunæ hujusce diei." This reading, about which there has been some doubt, is supported by an ancient inscription in Orellius.
183 "Artem toreuticen." See Note at the end of B. xxxiii.
184 Pliny has here confounded two artists of the same name; the Polycletus who was the successor of Phidias, and was not much inferior to him in merit, and Polycletus of Argos, who lived 160 years later, and who also executed many capital works, some of which are here mentioned. It appears that Cicero, Vitruvius, Strabo, Quintilian, Plutarch, and Lucian have also confounded these two artists; but Pausanias, who is very correct in the account which he gives us of all subjects connected with works of art, was aware of the distinction; and it is from his observations that we have been enabled to correct the error into which so many eminent writers had fallen.—B.
185 Derived from the head-dress of the statue, which had the "head ornamented with a fillet" Lucian mentions it.
186 The "Spear-bearer."
187 "Canon." This no doubt was the same statue as the Doryphoros. See Cicero, Brut. 86, 296.
188 Or "strigil." Visconti says that this was a statue of Tydeus purifying himself from the murder of his brother. It is represented on gems still in existence.
189 "Talo incessentem." "Gesner (Chrestom. Plin.) has strangely explained these words as intimating a person in the act of kicking another. He seems to confound the words talus and calx."—Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.
190 "The players at dice." This is the subject of a painting found at Herculaneum.—B.
191 The "Leader." A name given also to Mercury, in Pausanias, B. viii. c. 31. See Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.
192 "Carried about." It has been supposed by some commentators, that Artemon acquired this surname from his being carried about in a litter, in consequence of his lameness; a very different derivation has been assigned by others to the word, on the authority of Anacreon, as quoted by Heraclides Ponticus, that it was applied to Artemon in consequence of his excessively luxurious and effeminate habits of life.—B. It was evidently a recumbent figure. Ajasson compares this voluptuous person to "le gentleman Anglais aux Indes"—"The English Gentleman in India!"
193 See Note 80 above.
194 "Quadrata." Brotero quotes a passage from Celsus, B. ii. c. 1, which serves to explain the use of this term as applied to the form of a statue; "Corpus autem habilissimum quadratum est, neque gracile, neque obesum."—B. "The body best adapted for activity is square-built, and neither slender nor obese."
195 "Ad unum exemplum." Having a sort of family likeness, similarly to our pictures by Francia the Goldsmith, and Angelica Kaufmann.
196 Myron was born at Eleutheræ, in Bœotia; but having been presented by the Athenians with the freedom of their city, he afterwards resided there, and was always designated an Athenian.—B.
197 This figure is referred to by Ovid, De Ponto, B. iv. Ep. 1, l. 34, as also by a host of Epigrammatic writers in the Greek Anthology.
198 See the Greek Anthology, B. vi. Ep. 2.
199 "Player with the Discus." It is mentioned by Quintilian and Lucian. There is a copy of it in marble in the British Museum, and one in the Palazzo Massimi at Rome. The Heifer of Myron is mentioned by Procopius, as being at Rome in the sixth century. No copy of it is known to exist.
200 Seen by Pausanias in the Acropolis at Athens.
201 Or "Sawyers."
202 In reference to the story of the Satyr Marsyas and Minerva; told by Ovid, Fasti, B. vi. l. 697, et seq.
203 Persons engaged in the five contests of quoiting, running, leaping, wrestling, and hurling the javelin.
204 Competitors in boxing and wrestling.
205 Mentioned by Cicero In Verrem, Or. 4. This Circus was in the Eleventh Region of the city.
206 See the Anthology, B. iii. Ep. 14, where an epigram on this subject is ascribed to Anytes or Leonides; but the Myro mentioned is a female. See Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.
207 She was a poetess of Teios or Lesbos, and a contemporary of Sappho.
208 "Multiplicasse veritatem." Sillig has commented at some length on this passage, Dict. Ancient Artists.
209 See Note 2 above.
210 There is a painter of this name mentioned in B. xxxv. c. 43. The reading is extremely doubtful.
211 Mentioned by Plato, De Legibus, B. viii. and by Pausanias, B. vi. c. 13. He was thrice victorious at the Olympic Games.
214 Diogenes Laertius mentions a Pythagoras, a statuary, in his life of his celebrated namesake, the founder of the great school of philosophy.—B. Pausanias, B. ix. c. 35, speaks of a Parian statuary of this name.
215 See Note 79 above.
216 See end of B. vii.
217 Cicero remarks, Brut. 86, 296, "that Lysippus used to say that the Doryphoros of Polycletus was his master," implying that he considered himself indebted for his skill to having studied the above-mentioned work of Polycletus.—B.
218 In Chapter 17 of this Book.—B.
219 The same subject, which, as mentioned above, had been treated by Polycletus.—B.
221 The head encircled with rays.
222 The lines of Horace are well known, in which he says, that Alexander would allow his portrait to be painted by no one except Apelles, nor his statue to be made by any one except Lysippus, Epist. B. ii. Ep. 1, l. 237.—B.
223 This story is adopted by Apuleius, in the "Florida," B. i., who says that Polycletus was the only artist who made a statue of Alexander.
224 This expression would seem to indicate that the gold was attached to the bronze by some mechanical process, and not that the statue was covered with thin leaves of the metal.—B.
225 In the Eighth Region of the City.
226 A large group of equestrian statues, representing those of Alexander's body-guard, who had fallen at the battle of the Granicus.
227 A.U.C. 606.
228 See the Greek Anthology, B. iv. Ep. 14, where this subject is treated of in the epigram upon his statue of Opportunity, represented with the forelock.
229 Which is a word of Greek origin, somewhat similar to our word "proportion."
230 At Lebadæa in Bœotia.
231 Hardouin seems to think that "fiscina" here means a "muzzle." The Epigram in the Greek Anthology, B. iv. c. 7, attributed to King Philip, is supposed by Hardouin to bear reference to this figure.
232 The circumstance here referred to is related by Q. Curtius, B. ix. c. 5, as having occurred at the siege of the city of the Oxydracæ; according to other historians, however, it is said to have taken place at a city of the Malli.—B.
233 See Note 1, above.
235 Or Bacchus.
236 See Pausanias, B. i. c. 20. Sillig says, "Pliny seems to have confounded two Satyrs made by Praxiteles, for that here named stood alone in the 'Via Tripodum' at Athens, and was quite different from the one which was associated with the figure of Intoxication, and that of Bacchus." —Dict. Ancient Artists.
237 "Much-famed." Visconti is of opinion that the Reposing Satyr, formerly in the Napoleon Museum at Paris, was a copy of this statue. Winckelmann is also of the same opinion.
238 In the Second Region of the city. According to Cicero, in Verrem. vi., they were brought from Achaia by L. Mummius, who took them from Thespiæ, A.U.C. 608.
239 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.
240 A woman plaiting garlands.
241 A soubriquet for an old hag, it is thought.
242 A female carrying wine.
243 According to Valerius Maximus, B. ii. s. 10, these statues were restored, not by Alexander, but by his successor Seleucus.—B. Sillig makes the following remark upon this passage—" Pliny here strangely confounds the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, made by Praxiteles, with other figures of those heroes of a much more ancient date, made by Antenor."
244 From σαυρὸς, a "lizard," and κτἐλνω, "to kill." This statue is described by Martial, B. xiv. Ep. 172, entitled "Sauroctonos Corinthius."—B. Many fine copies of it are still in existence, and Winckelmann is of opinion that the bronze at the Villa Albani is the original. There are others at the Villa Borghese and in the Vatican.
245 In her worthless favours, probably. Praxiteles was a great admirer of Phryne, and inscribed on the base of this statue an Epigram of Simonides, preserved in the Greek Anthology, B. iv. Ep. 12. She was also said to have been the model of his Cnidian Venus.
246 This artist is mentioned also by Cicero, Pausanias, Propertius, and Ovid, the two latter especially remarking the excellence of his horses.—B. See B. xxxiii. c. 55.
247 The mother of Hercules.—B.
248 See B. xxxvi. c. 4. Having now given an account of the artists most distinguished for their genius, Pliny proceeds to make some remarks upon those who were less famous, in alphabetical order.—B.
249 The "highly approved."
250 Or "Lioness." See B. vii. c. 23.
251 The reading is doubtful here. "Iphicrates" and "Tisicrates" are other readings.
252 The same story is related by Athenæus, B. xiii., and by Pausanias.—B.
253 Pisistratus and his sons, Hippias and Hipparchus.
254 A lioness.
255 She having bitten off her tongue, that she might not confess.
256 Hardouin has offered a plausible conjecture, that for the word "Seleucum," we should read "Salutem," as implying that the two statues executed by Bryaxis were those of Æsculapius and the Goddess of Health.—B.
257 Already mentioned as a son of Lysippus.
258 In the Eighth Region of the City.
259 This reading appears preferable to "Cresilas," though the latter is supported by the Bamberg MS.
260 Ajasson quotes here the beautiful words of Virgil—"Et dulces moriens reminiscitur Argos"—"Remembers his lov'd Argos, as he dies."
261 Dalechamps supposes that Pericles was here represented in the act of addressing the people; Hardouin conceives that this statue received its title from the thunder of his eloquence in debate, or else from the mighty power which he wielded both in peace and war, or some of the other reasons which Plutarch mentions in the Life of Pericles.—B.
262 It is doubtful to which of the artists of this name he alludes, the elder or the younger Cephisodotus, the son of Praxiteles. Sillig inclines to think the former—Dict. Ancient Artists.
263 The "Deliverer."
264 The elder Canachus, probably.
265 The "Lovely." Brotero says that this is believed to be the Florentine Apollo of the present day. It stood in the Temple at Didymi, near Miletus, until the return of Xerxes from his expedition against Greece, when it was removed to Ecbatana, but was afterwards restored by Seleucus Nicator.
266 See B. v. c. 31.
267 "Alterno morsu calce digitisque retinentibus solum, ita vertebrato dente utrisque in partibus ut a repulsu per vices resiliat." He seems to mean that the statue is so made as to be capable of standing either on the right fore foot and the left hind foot, or on the left fore foot and the right hind foot, the conformation of the under part of the foot being such as to fit into the base.
268 The following are the words of the original: "Ita vertebrato dente utrisque in partibus." I confess myself unable to comprehend them, nor do I think that they are satisfactorily explained by Hardouin's comment.—B.
269 The "Riders on horseback."
270 It is supposed by Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists, that this is the same person as the Cresilas, Ctesilas, or Ctesilaüs, before mentioned in this Chapter, and that Pliny himself has committed a mistake in the name.
271 A figure of a man "brandishing a spear." See Note 83 above.
272 He is mentioned by Quintilian as being more attentive to exactness than to beauty; also by Diogenes Laertius, B. v. c. 85. Sillig supposes that he flourished in the time of Pericles. Pausanias, B. i., speaks of his Lysimache.
273 The Athenians in their flattery, as we learn from Seneca, expressed a wish to affiance their Minerva Musica to Marc Antony. His reply was, that he would be happy to take her, but with one thousand talents by way of portion.
274 He is mentioned by Xenophon, according to whom, he dedicated the brazen statue of a horse in the Eleusinium at Athens. He was probably an Athenian by birth.
275 Son of Patroclus, who is previously mentioned as having lived in the 95th Olympiad. He was a native of Sicyon, and flourished about B.C. 400. Several works of his are also mentioned by Pausanias.
276 Or "strigil." See Note 19 above.
277 The first Grecian slain at Troy.
278 Famous also as a painter. See B. xxxv. c. 40.—B. Paris, the son of Priam, was known by both of these names.
279 Q. Lutatius Catulus.
280 "Bonus Eventus;" Varro, de Re Rustica, B. i. c. 1, applies this term to one of the deities that preside over the labours of the agriculturist. His temple was situate near the Baths of Agrippa.—B.
281 In the Eighth Region of the City.
282 See Note 78, page 171.
283 Pausanias, B. vi., speaks of a statue of Ancient Greece, but the name of the artist is not mentioned.—B.
284 See B. iv. c. 8.
285 Brotero informs us, from Ficoroni, that there is a gem still in existence on which this design of Eutychides is engraved.—B.
286 Thiersch considers him to be identical with the elder Hegesias. He is mentioned also by Pausanias, B. viii. c. 42.
287 See Note 68, above.
288 Dedicated by Augustus on the Capitoline Hill, in the Eighth Region of the City.
289 Sillig distinguishes three artists of this name.
290 See B. v. c. 40, and B. vii. c. 2.
291 The "Sacrificers of the ox."
292 The son also.
293 Martial expresses the same idea in his Epigram, B. i. Ep. 7; but he does not refer to this statue.—B. Two copies of this Ganymede are still in existence at Rome.
294 Pausanias informs us, B. i. and B. ix., that he saw this statue in the Prytanæum of Athens.—B. Autolycus obtained this victory about the 89th or 90th Olympiad.
295 It was in honour of a victory gained by him in the pentathlon at the Great Panathenæa, that Callias gave the Symposium described by Xenophon.
296 Martial, B. ix. Ep. 51, where he is pointing at the analogy between
his poems and the works of the most eminent sculptors, probably refers to
"Nos facimus Bruti puerum, nos Lagona vivum."—B.
The reading "Lagonem," or "Langonem," certainly seems superior to that of the Bamberg MS.—"Mangonem," a "huckster."
297 For some further mention of him, see end of B. iv.
298 Delafosse has pointed out the resemblance between this statue and one of the works of Michael Angelo, representing David kneeling on Goliath, and pressing back the giant's neck.—B.
299 A native of Argos, who flourished in the 95th Olympiad. He was the son of Motho, and brother and instructor of the younger Polycletus of Argos. Several of his statues are mentioned by Pausanias and Tatian.
300 Ajasson thinks that three statues in the Royal Museum at Paris may possibly be copies of this Discobolus of Naucydes.
301 The Goddess of Health, and daughter of Æsculapius. Niceratus was a native of Athens, and is also mentioned by Tatian.
302 A "Female sacrificing." The reading is very doubtful.
303 The "Man cooking entrails." For some further account of this statue, see B. xxii. c. 20. This artist is unknown, but Thiersch suggests that he may have been the father of Cleomenes, whose name appears on the base of the Venus de Medicis.
304 The master of the Gymnasium.
305 He is twice mentioned by Pausanias: more particularly for the excellence of his horses and oxen. His country is unknown.
306 "The beautiful-legged." This statue has been mentioned at the end of Chapter 18, as having been greatly admired by Nero.
307 This, it is supposed, is the statue to which Martial alludes in his Epigram, mentioned in Note 95 above.—B.
308 There were two artists of this name, both natives of Samos. The present is the elder Theodorus, and is mentioned by Pausanias as having been the first to fuse iron for statues. He is spoken of by numerous ancient authors, and by Pliny in B. vii. c. 57, B. xxxv. c. 45, and B. xxxvi. c. 19, where he is erroneously mentioned as a Lemnian.
309 At Crete: Athenagoras mentions him in conjunction with Dædalus.
310 See B. vii. c. 21. Hardouin thinks that this bears reference to the conquest of the younger Marius by Sylla, mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 5. Müller and Meyer treat this story of the brazen statue as a fiction.
311 Probably the same author that is mentioned at the end of B. xxxiii. See also B. xxxv. c. 36.
312 The Galli here spoken of were a tribe of the Celts, who invaded Asia Minor, and afterwards uniting with the Greeks, settled in a portion of Bithynia, which hence acquired the name of Gallo-Græcia or Galatia.—B.
313 See end of B. xxxiii. Attalus I., king of Pergamus, conquered the Galli, B.C. 239. Pyromachus has been mentioned a few lines before, and Stratonicus, in B. xxxiii. c. 55, also by Athenæus.
314 A native of Carthage. A work of his is mentioned by Cicero, In Verrem 4, 14, and in the Culex, 1. 66, attributed to Virgil. See also B. xxxiii. c. 55.
315 In the Eighth Region of the City.
316 We are informed by Pausanias, B. x., that Nero carried off from Greece 500 bronze statues of gods and men.—B.
317 See B. xxxvi. c. 24.
318 See B. xxxv. c. 55.
319 Mentioned by Pausanias, B. vi. Many of these artists are altogether unknown.
320 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.
321 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.
322 See B. xxxiii. c. 56, and B. xxxv. c. 35.
323 Probably the same artist that has been mentioned in the preceding page.
324 The artist already mentioned as having been represented by Silanion.
325 Pausanias, B. iii., speaks of his statue of Cynisca, a female who was victor at the Olympic games. Indeed, the victors at these games were frequently represented in a posture resembling that of adoration.
326 A man "scraping himself," probably. See Note 19, page 175. The "Tyrannicides" were Harmodius and Aristogiton.
327 Tatian mentions an artist of this name.
328 Sillig thinks that this was Seleucus, king of Babylon, B.C. 312.
329 See Note 70 above
330 Pausanias, B. viii., gives an account of a statue of Diana, made of Pentelican marble, by this Cephisodotus, a native of Athens; he is supposed to have flourished in the 102nd Olympiad. In the commencement of this Chapter, Pliny has enumerated a Cephisodotus among the artists of the 120th Olympiad.—B.
332 The elder artist of this name. See B. xxxv. c. 34.
333 A native of Sicyon; Pausanias, B. v. cc. 17, 21, informs us that Cleon made a statue of Venus and two statues of Jupiter; he also mentions others of his works in B. vi.—B.
334 A native of Megara. He made a 'statue of Diagoras the pugilist, who was victor at the Olympic games, B.C. 464. He is mentioned also by Pausanias.
335 Probably the same with the "Laïppus" mentioned in the early part of this Chapter. Silling, Diet. Ancient Artists, considers "Daïppus" to be the right name.
336 See Note 26 above.
337 A native of Sicyon, and pupil of Pison, according to Pausanias, B. vi. c. 3. He flourished about the 100th Olympiad.
338 Works of his at Athens are mentioned by Pausanias, B. i. c. 2, who also states that he was father of Euohir, the Athenian.
339 A statuary of Syracuse, son of Niceratus. He made two statues of Hiero Il., king of Syracuse, who died B.C. 215. He must not be confounded with the painter and statuary of the same name, mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 56, and B. xxxv. c. 35. He is mentioned also by Pausanias.
340 An Athenian, son of Euctemon. He is mentioned also by Tatian, and is supposed by Sillig to have flourished about B.C. 420.
341 Called Dinomache by Plutarch.
342 Already mentioned as a successful pupil of Lysippus.
343 He was probably a native of Agrigentum, and flourished about B.C. 560. The brazen bull of Perillus, and his unhappy fate, are recorded by many of the classical writers, among others by Valerius Maximus, B. ix. cc. 2, 9, and by Ovid, Art. Am. B. i. ll. 653-4.—B.
344 See B. vii. c. 57.
345 Mentioned at the commencement of this Chapter.
346 A statuary of Ægina, mentioned also by Pausanias, B. v. c. 27, in connexion with Dionysius of Argos. He flourished about Olymp. 76.
347 Already mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 55, and previously in this Chapter.
348 "Scopas uterque." Sillig, Diet. Ancient Artists, expresses an opinion that these words are an interpolation; but in his last edition of Pliny, he thinks with M. Ian, that some words are wanting, expressive of the branch in which these artists excelled. See also B. xxxvi. cc. 5, 14.
349 He is previously mentioned in this Chapter. See p. 179.
350 An Athenian artist, son of Eubulides. He is also mentioned by Pausanias.
351 A Lacedæmonian artist, also mentioned by Pausanias.
352 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.
353 Mentioned also by Pausanias, B. i. c. 3.
354 Probably not the Athenian statuary mentioned by Pausanias, B. ix. c. 7. See Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.
355 A native of Phocis, mentioned also by Vitruvius.
356 Also a Dithyrambic poet; mentioned by Diodorus Siculus.
357 In B. xxxv. c. 36.
358 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.
359 Mentioned by Tatian as having made the statue of Eutychis. See Pliny, B. vii. c. 3.
360 He executed a statue of Hephæstion; and an inscription relative to him is preserved by Wheler, Spon, and Chishull.
361 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.
362 A native of Sardis; mentioned by Pausanias.
363 An Athenian, mentioned also by Pausanias.
364 Strabo mentions some of his productions in the Temple at Ephesus.
365 "Fritterer away of his works." He was also an engraver on gold, and a painter. He is spoken of in high terms by Vitruvius, Pausauias, and Dionysius of Halicarnassus.
366 We have an account of Cato's honourable conduct on this occasion in Plutarch.—B. See also B. xxix. c. 30.
367 "Inane exemplum." Hardouin thinks that this is said in reference to his neglect of the example set by his grandfather, Cato the Censor, who hated the Greeks. See B. vii. c. 31.
368 In the poisoned garment, which was the eventual cause of his death.—B.
369 The general who conducted the war against Mithridates.—B.
370 See B. xxxiii. c. 46. "Chaplet" copper.
371 "Bar" copper, or "malleable."
372 It is very improbable that this effect could be produced by the cause here assigned; but without a more detailed account of the process employed, we cannot explain the change of colour.—B.
374 "Cast brass."
375 See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. I. p. 415. Bohn's Edition.
376 In the former Editions the whole of the next ten lines, from this word down to "sun" is omitted. It is evident that it has been left out by accident, in consequence of the recurrence of the word "Campano." The hiatus has been supplied from the Bamberg MS., and the reading is supported by the text of Isidorus, Orig. B. xvi. c. 20, s. 9.
379 "Piumbi nigri"—"black lead," literally, but not what we mean by that name.
380 The "Grecian" colour. It does not appear to have been identified, nor does it appear what it has to do with moulds.
381 "Pot" copper, or brass.
382 Beckmann is of opinion that this "plumbum argentarium" was a mixture of equal parts of tin and lead. Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 220. Bohn's Edition.
383 Most of these preparations are in reality highly dangerous. Oxides, however, or salts of copper, have been employed internally with success, acting by alvine evacuation and by vomiting. The Crocus Veneris of the old chemists was an oxide of copper. It is still used by the peasants of Silesia, Ajasson says.
384 It is obvious that the "cadmia" here described must be an essentially different substance from the "cadmia" mentioned in the second Chapter of this Book, that being a natural production, possibly calamine or hydrosilicate or carbonate of zinc; while the "cadmia" of this Chapter is a furnace-calamine, a product of the fusion of the ore of copper, or zinc.—B. It is evident, too, that copper ores, impregnated with zinc or calamine, also passed under this name. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. II. pp. 33–35, Bohn's Edition, where this subject is discussed at considerable length: also the treatise by Delafosse, in Lemaire's Edition of Pliny.
385 The metal known to us as "cadmium" was discovered by Professor Stromeyer in 1818: it is either associated in its ores with zinc, or forms a native sulphuret.
386 "Smoky residue." None of these substances formed in smelting are preserved for medicinal purposes at the present day. Tutty is an impure oxide of zinc.
387 "Cluster residue." From its resemblance to a bunch of grapes.
388 "Caked residue."
389 "Shell-formed residue."
390 See B. xiv. c. 16.
391 See end of B. iii.
392 See end of B. xii.
393 We have the same account of the medicinal effects of Cadmia, and the other preparations mentioned in this Chapter, given by Dioscorides.—B.
394 For an account of the "alumen" of the ancients, see B. xxxv. c. 52.
395 See B. xxxiii. c. 21, and B. xxxvi. c. 13.
396 See B. xxxiii. c. 37.
397 "Æris flos." Ajasson makes some correct remarks upon the difference between the "scoria" and the "flower" of the metal. The former may be considered as consisting of the metal, mixed with a certain proportion of heterogeneous matter, which has been separated during the fusion of the ore, while the latter consists of the pure metal in a state of mechanical division.—B.
399 Ajasson describes this substance as consisting merely of the pure metal in a state of minute mechanical division; it would appear, therefore, to be scarcely, if at all, different from the articles described in the last Chapter. The word στόμωμα means a "hard substance," or "hard scales," therefore the application of this term to a substance like down, "lanugo," is perhaps not very appropriate.—B.
400 Beckmann comments at some length on this passage; Vol. I. p. 328. Bohn's Edition.
401 "Seplasiæ." The druggists dwelling in the Seplasia. See B. xxxiii. c. 58.
402 In Chapters 22 and 23, as applied to Cadmia and Cyprian copper, respectively.—B.
403 "Ærugo." The researches of modern chemists have ascertained the composition of verdigris to be a diacetete of copper; the sesquibasic acetate and the triacetate are also to be considered as varieties of this substance; we have an exact analysis of these salts in the "Elements" of the late Dr. Turner, the Sixth Edition, edited by Professor Liebig and Mr. W. Turner, pp. 931, 2. Most of the processes described in this Chapter are mentioned by Dioscorides.—B. See also Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. I. p. 171, et seq., Bohn's Edition.
404 According to Brotero, this is the process generally adopted in France, in preference to the employment of vinegar in a pure state.—B.
405 The form of copper which was termed "coronarium" has been already described in Chapter 22.—B.
406 "Atramento sutorio." "Shoemakers' black." See Chapters 27 and 32 of this Book.
407 Until it assumes an ashy colour, Dioscorides says.—B.
408 See B. xii. cc. 30, 32.
409 According to Celsus, this substance obtained its name from the person who invented or compounded it; he calls it "Collyrium of Hierax."—B.
410 "Atramenti sutorii, quod chalcanthum vocant." We may presume that this substance was somewhat different from the "atramentum sutorium" mentioned in the last Chapter: the word "chalcanthum" means "flower of copper;" χαλκοῦ ἄνθος.—B. Delafosse identifies it with blue vitriol, sulphate, or hydro-trisulphate of copper. See Chapter 32.
411 See Chapter 31.
412 From the Greek σκωλὴξ, "a worm," "Vermicular Verdigris."— "The accounts of this substance in ancient authors seem to some commentators to be obscure; but in my opinion we are to understand by them that the ingredients were pounded together till the paste they formed assumed the appearance of pieces or threads like worms. For the same reason the Italians give the name of vermicelli to wire-drawn paste of flour used in cookery."—Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. I. p. 173, Bohn's Edition.
413 In B. xxxiii. c. 29—B.
414 The name, no doubt, of a copper ore which has not been identified. Delafosse suggests that it may have been an ore of iron and copper pyrites in combination with a silky copper malachite. See Chapter 2 of this Book, and B. xxxv. c. 52.
415 Brongniart is of opinion that the "sory" of Pliny is the sulphate of copper, probably with an excess of acid. He informs us that he has received a specimen of a native sulphate of copper from Cuença, in Spain, which possesses all the characteristics of "sory" as here described. He considers it more difficult to ascertain the chemical composition of "misy," but is disposed to consider it as a mixed sulphate of iron and copper.—B.
416 In the next two Chapters.—B.
417 We have a similar account of its medicinal virtues given us by Dioscorides; Celsus also enumerates chalcitis among the corrosives, or cauteries, "quæ exedunt corpus." He also recommends it for affections of the eyes.—B.
418 "Sore ointment."
419 See Note 15 above.
420 See Note 15 above. Hardouin calls this substance "yellow copperas," or "Roman vitriol."
421 "In scrobibus." The mineral alluded to is Chalcitis, mentioned in Chapter 29.—B.
423 "Atramentum sutorium." It was thus called from its being used for colouring leather. Under this name he probably includes green vitriol, or sulphate of the protoxide of iron, and blue vitriol, or sulphate, and hydro-trisulphate of copper, the former of which is, properly, our copperas. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. I. p. 181, et. seq. Bohn's Edition. See also Note 10 above.
424 In reality, the "chalcanthum" of Dioscorides was the small scales separated from molten copper by the application of water. See Chapters 24 and 25 above.
425 Of this kind, probably. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. I. p. 182.
426 From this vitreous appearance of the crystals of vitriol, it is most probable that vitriol derives its name. See Beckmann, Vol. I. p. 184.
427 " Drop," or "globule" chalcanthum.
428 Possibly a corruption of "leucoion," "violet white."
429 He has described the mode of procuring salt, by evaporating the brine in shallow pits, in B. xxxi. c. 39.—B.
430 It is difficult to ascertain the exact nature of the substances treated of in this Chapter. Ajasson has some judicious remarks upon them, in which he points out what appear to be inconsistencies in the account given of them, and of their relation to each other.—B. Ajasson says that there is no doubt that a mammose or terreous carbonate of copper is meant under these names. These substances are no longer known, but our tutty, or impure oxide of zinc, bears some resemblance to them.
431 See B. xix. c. 4, and Chapters 34 and 52 of this Book.
432 A Greek word, signifying "ashes," or the residuum after combustion.—B.
433 From the corresponding passage in Dioscorides, there is some doubt whether the account of this process here given is correct.—B.
434 So called from Laurium, a district in Attica, in which there were silver mines. See Pausanias, B. i.—B.
435 Meaning "Substitute for spodos."
436 See B. xxiii. cc. 38, 63.
437 See B. xxi. c. 26, and B. xvi. c. 20.
438 See B. xxi. c. 95.
439 See B. xi. c. 94.—B.
440 " Detersive composition."
442 The Scoriæ, Cadmia, and Flos, which are described in Chapters 22, 23 and 24.—B.
443 A Roman coin, equal to the third part of the "as."—B.
444 We most fully coincide with Pliny in this sentiment, but we are constrained to differ from him in giving credit to the alleged fact, as he appears to have done.—B.
445 See the list of authors at the end of this Book.
446 " Arbusta:" trees on which vines were trained. See B. xvii. c. 35.
447 Holland has the following Note upon this passage: "O Pliny, what wouldst thou say, if thou didst see and hear the pistols, muskets, culverines, and cannons in these days." Vol. II. p. 513.—B.
448 The charge that death is always the work of Nature.—B.
449 Or "stylus."
450 See Ovid, Metam. B. iv. 1. 467, et seq.; and Fasti, B. vi. 1. 489, et seq.—B.
451 An artist mentioned also by Ovid and Pausanias.—B. And by Virgil.
452 " Mars Ultor." In the Forum of Augustus, in the Eighth Region of the City.
453 The Isle of Elba, which has been celebrated for the extent and the richness of its iron mines both by the ancients and the moderns.—B. Ajasson remarks that it appears to be a solid rock composed of peroxide of iron.
454 " Clavis caligariis." See B. viii. c. 44, B. ix. c. 33, and B. xxii. c. 46.
455 There have been numerous opinions on the meaning of this word, and its signification is very doubtful. Beckmann has the following remarks in reference to this passage:—"In my opinion, this was the name given to pieces of steel completely manufactured and brought to that state which rendered them fit for commerce. At present steel comes from Biscay in cakes, from other places in bars, and both these were formerly called 'stricturæ,' because they were employed chiefly for giving sharpness to instruments, or tools, that is, for steeling them. In speaking of other metals, Pliny says that the finished productions at the works were not called 'stricturæ' (the case, for example, with copper), though sharpness could be given to instruments with other metals also. The words of Pliny just quoted are read different ways, and still remain obscure. I conjecture that he meant to say, that some steel-works produced things which were entirely of steel, and that others were employed only in steeling—'ad densandas incudes malleorumve rostra.' I shall here remark that these 'stricturæ ferri' remind us of the ' striges auri,' (see B. xxxiii. c. 19), such being the name given to native pieces of gold, which, without being smelted, were used in commerce."—Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 327. Bohn's Edition.
456 " A stringenda acie." The iron was probably formed into thin, long bars, in thickness resembling a steel used for sharpening. The French word acier, meaning "steel," may possibly come from the Latin " acies"—" edge," as Beckmann has suggested.
457 Situate at the spot now known as "Bambola," near Calatayud. The river Salo ran near it, the waters of which, as here mentioned, were celebrated for their power of tempering steel. The poet Martial was a native of this place.
458 Supposed to be the modern Tarragona.
459 See B. iii. c. 21.
460 See B. vi. cc. 20-24, B. vii. c. 2, and B. xii. cc. 1, 41. This Seric iron has not been identified. Ctesias, as quoted by Photius, mentions Indian iron. See Beckmann, Vol. II. p. 228. Bohn's Edition.
461 Thought by Beckmann, quoting from Bottiger, possibly to bear reference to a transfer trade of furs, through Serica, from the North of Asia. See Vol. II. p. 307. As to the Seric tisssues, see B. xxxvii. c. 77.
462 Or "Persian." The steel of Damascus had in the middle ages a high reputation.
463 See B. iii. cc. 24, 27. Horace speaks of the "Norican sword" on two occasions.—B.
464 See B. iii. cc. 9, 17.
465 See B. xviii. c. 67, and B. xxxvi. c. 38.
466 B. xxxvi. c. 25.
467 Properly "bubbles," or "beads."
468 See B. xxxvi. c. 66. In the account of the loadstone referred to above, he informs us that this mineral was employed in the formation of glass.—B. Beckmann is of opinion that Manganese is here alluded to. See Vol. II. p. 237.
469 Another reading is "Dinochares," or "Dinocrates," for an account of whom, see B. v. c. 11, and B. vii. c. 38.
470 Wife and sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. See B. vi. c. 33, and B. xxxvi. c. 14.
471 Some accounts state that the statue was to be of brass, and the head of iron. It is said that the same thing was attempted with respect to the statue of Mahomet, in his tomb at Medina.—B.
472 We learn from Bowles that the celebrated mine of Sommorostro is still worked for this metal.
473 See B. iv. c. 34.—B.
474 Both the reading and the meaning of this passage are very doubtful.
475 See B. v. c. 21.—B.
476 We may presume that Pliny supposed that the ancient links had been protected by some of the substances mentioned above, although this is not distinctly stated.—B. Or rather by some religious ceremony as above alluded to.
477 "Nocturnas lymphationes."—B.
478 The actual cautery, as it is termed, is occasionally employed, in certain diseases, by the moderns, but I am not aware that it has been tried in hydrophobia.—B. This precaution is sometimes used by country practitioners, at all events.
479 I cannot agree with Delafosse in his remark that "this remedy also is much in use for cœliac and other affections at the present day."—B. It is still recommended by old women in the country, for children more particularly.
480 There are two versions of this story. In B. xxv. c. 19, Pliny says that Achilles cured Telephus by the application of a plant, which from him received its name. According to the other account, the oracle had declared, that the wound of Telephus, which had been inflicted by Achilles, could only be cured by means of the same weapon which had caused it.—B.
481 All the statements in this Chapter are to be found in Dioscorides, B. v. c. 93.—B.
482 The scaly excrescences beaten from iron in the forges, Hardouin says.—B.
484 See B. xxxv. c. 57.—B.
485 It is most probable that the "black lead" of Pliny was our lead, and the "white lead" our tin. Beckmann has considered these Chapters at great length, Vol. II. p. 209, et seq. Bohn's Edition.
486 Supposed to have been derived from the Oriental word Kastîra.
487 What is here adduced as a fabulous narrative is not very remote from the truth; the Scilly Isles and Cornwall being the principal sources of the tin now employed in Europe. Small boats, corresponding to the description here given, were very lately still in use among the inhabitants of some parts of the south-west coast of England [and on the Severn]. Pliny has already spoken of these boats in B. vii. c. 57.—B. See also B. iv. c. 30, as to the coracles of the ancient Britons.
488 The ores of tin are known to exist in Gallicia; but the mines in that country are very scanty compared to those of Cornwall.—B.
489 "Talutium" is mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 21.
490 Tin ore is among the heaviest of minerals, though the specific gravity of the metal is small. M. Hæfer is of opinion that these pebbles contained platinum.
491 Or tin. The greater fusibility of the tin producing this separation.—B.
492 We may conclude that the "plumbum nigrum," or "black lead" of Pliny is the Galena or sulphuret of lead of the moderns; it is frequently what is termed argentiferous, i. e. united with an ore of silver, and this in such quantity as to cause it to be worked for the purpose of procuring the silver.—B. See Beckmann, Vol. II. p. 210.
493 "Instead of oil, workmen use at present 'colophonium,' or some other resin."—Beckmann, Vol. II. p. 223. See also B. xxxiii. c. 20.
494 Iliad, xi. 25, and xxiii. 561.—B.
495 Ajasson considers this to be Bismuth; but it is more probable that Beckmann is right in his conclusion, supported by Agricola, Entzel, Fallopius, Savot, Bernia, and Jung, that it was a compound metal, the Werk of the German smelting houses: a metal not much unlike our pewter, probably. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. II. pp. 209, 212, 224. Bohn's Edition.
496 See B. xxxiii. c. 31, and c. 53 of this Book.
497 A compound metal, probably, somewhat like pewter. See Note 95 above. He evidently alludes to the process of "tinning."
498 In B. xxxiii. c. 45: where he says that the best mirrors were formerly made of a mixture of stannum and copper.—B. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. II. pp. 60–62, 72.
499 Or tin.
500 "Silver mixture."
501 Such a mixture as this would in reality become more valuable than "argentarium," as the proportion would be two-thirds of tin and one of lead. How then could the workmen merit the title of dishonest? Beckmann suggests that the tinning ought to have been done with pure tin, but that unprincipled artists employed tin mixed with lead. It is most probable, however, that Pliny himself has made a mistake, and that we should read "equal parts of black lead" (our lead); in which case the mixture passed off as "argentarium," instead of containing equal parts of tin and lead, would contain five-sixths of lead. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 221. Bohn's Edition.
502 All these readings are doubtful in the extreme.
503 As being too brittle, probably; the reason suggested by Beckmann, Vol. II. p. 221.
504 Literally, "inboiled," being coated by immersion in the molten tin.
505 Supposed by Hardouin to have been the town of Alise, in Auxois.
506 See B. iv. c. 33.
507 The names of various kinds of carriages, the form of which is now unknown.
508 Both tin and lead can be fused in paper, when it is closely wrapped around them.
509 In reality India did and does possess them both; but it is possible that in those days it was not considered worth while to search for them.
510 The "lead" of the moderns.
511 Mr. T. Wright, the eminent antiquarian, is of opinion that the extensive Roman lead mines at Shelve, in Shropshire, are here alluded to. See the Illustrated London News, Oct. 4, 1856.
512 Probably from Ovetum, the modern Oviedo.—B.
513 So called from the island of Capraria. See B. iii. cc. 11, 12, and B. vi. c. 37.
514 See B. iii c 12.
515 Not in Bætica, as Brotero remarks, but in Lusitania, or Portugal; the modern Santarem.—B.
516 See Introduction to Vol. III.
517 This circumstance is mentioned by Suetonius, c. 20.—B.
518 Hardouin observes, that these insects are never met with in mines; but probably this may depend more upon other causes, than upon the vapours which are supposed to proceed from the metals.—B.
519 See B. xxxiii. cc. 33, 34.
520 See B. xx. c. 81, and B. xxiv. c. 73.
521 "Charta." See B. xxiv. c. 51.
522 This, according to Ajasson, is the protoxide, or probably, in some cases, the arseniate of lead.—B.
524 See Chapter 34 of this Book.—B.
525 This was probably lead ore in its primary state, when only separated from the stannum, and before it was subjected to fusion for the purpose of obtaining pure lead.—See Beckmann's Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 211. Bohn's Edition. Ajasson identifies it with litharge, or fused oxide of lead, known as gold and silver litharge, from its colour.
526 See B. xxxiii. c. 31, and Chapter 47 of this Book.—B.
527 In Cilicia: see B. v. c. 22. He is speaking, no doubt, of the "metallic," or artificial kind.
528 A kind of ointment. See B. xxiii. c. 81, and B. xxxiii. c. 35.
529 Our Litharge. See B. xxxiii. c. 35.
530 According to Ajasson, this substance is properly a sub-carbonate of lead, commonly called white lead.—B.
531 Scoria of lead and molybdæna.—B.
532 Preparations of lead are still used in cosmetics for whitening the complexion.
533 The Realgar of the moderns, red orpiment, or red sulphuret of arsenic. Pliny has in numerous places spoken of it as a remedy for certain morbid states both of animals and vegetables, B. xvii. c. 47, B. xxiii. c. 13, B. xxv. c. 22, and B. xxviii. c. 62, but he has not previously given any account of its origin and composition.—B.
534 Dioscorides, B. v. c. 122, informs us, with respect to this effect of sandarach, that it was burned in combination with resin, and that the smoke was inhaled through a tube.—B.
535 The substance here mentioned, though its name is the foundation of our word "arsenic," is not the arsenic of modern commerce, but probably a sulphuret of arsenic containing a less proportion of sulphur than the Sandarach of the last Chapter.—B.
536 The other two mentioned species naturally divide into laminæ, while this kind is disposed to separate into fine fibres.—B.
537 By this process a considerable portion of the sulphur is expelled, so as to cause the orpiment to approximate to the state of arsenic.—B.
538 See end of B. ii.
539 See end of B. ii.
540 See end of B. iii.
541 See end of B. ii.
542 See end of B. ii.
543 A different person from the Messala mentioned at the end of B. ix. He is mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 14, B. xxxv. c. 2, and in Chapter 38 of this Book; but nothing further seems to be known of him.
544 See end of B. vii. and Note 94 to B. vii. c. 53.
545 Domitius Marsus, a poet of the Augustan age, of whom few particulars are known, except that he wrote an epitaph on the poet Tibullus, who died B.C. 18. He is mentioned by Ovid and Martial, from the latter of whom we learn that his epigrams were distinguished for their wit, licentiousness, and satire.
546 See end of B. xvi.
547 See end of B. xx.
548 See end of B. xii.
549 See end of B. vii.
550 See end of B. ii.
551 See end of B. iii.
552 See end of B. iv.
553 See c. 19 of this Book, Note 11, page 184.
554 See end of B. xxxiii.
555 See end of B. vii.
556 See end of B. xxxiii.
557 See end of B. xxxiii.
558 See end of B. xxxiii.
559 See end of B. iii.
560 See end of B. xii.
561 See end of Books iv., viii., xi., and xx.
562 See end of B. xx.
563 See end of Books iv., and xii.
564 See end of B. xii.
565 See end of B. xiii.
566 See end of B. xii.
567 See end of B. xii.
568 See end of B. xxix.
569 See end of B. xii.
570 See end of B. xii.
571 See end of B. xxxiii.
572 See end of B. xxxiii.
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