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And not only this, but, during the time that Panænus flourished, there were contests in the pictorial art instituted at Corinth and Delphi. On the first occasion, Panænus himself entered the lists, at the Pythian Games, with Timagoras of Chalcis, by whom he was defeated; a circumstance which is recorded in some ancient lines by Timagoras himself, and an undoubted proof that the chroniclers are in error as to the date of the origin of painting. After these, and yet before the ninetieth Olympiad, there were other celebrated painters, Polygnotus of Thasos,1 for instance, who was the first to paint females in transparent drapery, and to represent the head covered with a parti-coloured head-dress. He, too, was the first to contribute many other improvements to the art of painting, opening the mouth, for example, showing the teeth, and throwing expression into the countenance, in place of the ancient rigidity of the features.

There is a picture by this artist in the Portico2 of Pompeius, before the Curia that was built by him; with reference to which, there is some doubt whether the man represented with a shield is in the act of ascending or descending. He also embellished the Temple3 at Delphi, and at Athens the Portico known as the Pœcile;4 at which last he worked gratuitously, in conjunction with Micon,5 who received pay for his labours. Indeed Polygnotus was held in the higher esteem of the two; for the Amphictyons,6 who form the general Council of Greece, decreed that he should have his lodging furnished him at the public expense.

There was also another Micon, distinguished from the first Micon by the surname of "the younger," and whose daughter Timarete7 also practised the art of painting.

1 See B. vii. c. 57. (Vol. II. p. 233), where he is mentioned as an Athenian. It is not improbable that he became a citizen of Athens in the seventy-ninth Olympiad, B.C. 463, when Thasos was brought under the power of Athens, and, as Sillig suggests, at the solicitation of Cimon, the son of Miltiades. It is generally supposed that he flourished about the eightieth Olympiad.

2 Belonging to the Theatre of Pompey, in the Ninth Region of the City.

3 With scenes from the Trojan War, and the adventures of Ulysses.

4 Or "Variegated;" from its various pictures.

5 See B. xxxiii. c. 56.

6 See B. vii. c. 37.

7 She is again mentioned in Chapter 40.

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