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nston, and personally every way acceptable to him. Much beloved by the Kentuckians in life, his self-sacrifice and heroic death endeared to them his memory. An act had been passed by the Confederate Government, August 28th, appropriating a million dollars to aid Kentucky in repelling invasion. It was five or six months too late. Employed early enough, it might have been a fair offset to the millions used in the State by the United States Government. By an act of Congress, approved December 10th, Kentucky was admitted a member of the Confederate States of America on an equal footing with the other States of this Confederacy. On November 11th a large Dahlgren gun burst at Columbus, killing Captain Reiter, Lieutenant Snowden, and five gunners. General Polk was injured, the shock producing deafness, sickness, and great nervous prostration, which lasted several weeks. In the mean time his duties devolved on General Pillow. Polk offered his resignation, which was declined. He
ormed General Johnston that he had crossed the Cumberland that day, with five infantry regiments, seven cavalry companies, and four pieces of artillery, about two-thirds of his whole force, which in all reached less than 6,000 effectives. On December 10th he wrote again: Your two dispatches of the 4th reached me late last night. I infer from yours that I should not have crossed the river, but it is now too late. My means of recrossing are so limited I could hardly accomplish it in face in supporting distance, as they joined in the pursuit. Such was Thomas's position on the morning of the 19th of January. About New-Year's-day General Crittenden had arrived at Zollicoffer's headquarters at Beech Grove. In his letter of December 10th Zollicoffer had written as follows: This camp is immediately opposite to Mill Springs, one and a quarter mile distant. The river protects our rear and flanks. We have about 1,200 yards' fighting front to defend, which we are intrenchin
ently became more imminent at the forts and less so at Clarksville; and military movements and preparations were, of course, modified accordingly. On the 10th of December General Johnston, writing to General Polk, pointed out the lines by which the enemy might attempt to turn and carry Columbus: first, by a force from Cape Gir accomplished their objects. Their movements were too cautious and insufficiently developed to allow General Polk to follow General Johnston's instructions of December 10th, and harass or attack them. These expeditions, undertaken in the depth of winter, improved the morale of the Federal troops, and accustomed them to the hards threatened Paris. This movement, in conjunction with the demonstration against Columbus, exactly verified the prediction of General Johnston in his letter of December 10th. The columns, moving by the west bank of the Mississippi, advanced later. But the blow struck against Zollicoffer at this very date had also been pointed out
Robert Lewis Dabney, Life and Commands of Lieutenand- General Thomas J. Jackson, Chapter 8: winter campaign in the Valley. 1861-62. (search)
to feed it by a series of dams thrown across its channel. The most important of these was the one known as Dam No. 5, built within a sharp curve of the river, concave towards the south, north of the town of Martinsburg. The sluices from above this barrier filled a long level of the canal, and its destruction left it dry, and useless for many miles; while no force would be adequate to rebuild it amidst the ice and freezing floods of winter. Jackson therefore marched to Martinsburg, December 10th, with a part of his militia, his cavalry, and the Stonewall Brigade, and thence made his dispositions to protect the working party, who were to attempt the task of demolition. It was necessary to guard the whole circuit of the curve upon which the dam was situated, lest the enemy, who were in force on the other bank, should cross behind the detachment. General Jackson, sending the militia to make a diversion towards Williamsport, entered the peninsula, posted the veteran brigade near
Robert Lewis Dabney, Life and Commands of Lieutenand- General Thomas J. Jackson, Chapter 18: Fredericksburg. (search)
and fight with his divisions of infantry, one hundred and eighty heavy cannon, some of them throwing shot of a hundred pounds' weight, frowned upon the town and its approaches, from the opposing hills. The grand army was now arranged into three great corps, under Sumner, Hooker, and Franklin, which made an aggregate of one hundred and twenty-five thousand men, besides a corps of twenty-five thousand more, under the German Sigel, which performed the duties of a rear-guard. Upon the 10th of December, Burnside at length received his pontoon trains and he determined at once to prepare for forcing his way in the front of the Confederate army, and beginning his onward march to Richmond. He was confronted, upon the heights before Fredericksburg, by the corps of Longstreet. At Port Royal was the division of D. H. Hill; between him and Longstreet, was the division of Early; and the remainder of Jackson's corps was held in reserve about Guinea's Station, ready to support either point. T
Just back of Fredericksburg, stretching some two miles southward, is a semi-circular plain bordered by a range of hills. These stretch from Hamilton's crossing beyond Mayre's Hill on the left; and are covered with dense oak growth and a straggling fringe of pines. On these hills, Lee massed his artillery, to sweep the whole plain where the enemy must form, after his crossing; and arranged his line of battle with A. P. Hill holding the right and Longstreet the left. On the night of December 10th, Stafford Heights opened a furious bombardment of the town, tearing great gaps through the thickest populated quarters. Into the bitter winter night tender women and young children were driven, shivering with fright and cold, half clad; seeking safety from the screaming shells that chased them everywhere. Under this bombardment, the pioneers commenced their pontoons at three points. The storm of grape and canister was too great to contest the landing, which was effected next day.
Fitzhugh Lee, General Lee, Chapter 10: Sharpsburg and Fredericksburg. (search)
These are Stafford Heights. On the Fredericksburg side a level plateau stretches out to a range of hills which, beginning at a point above the town, runs parallel to the river for a mile or two, then extends back in a curve for four miles, until at its southern extremity at Hamilton's Crossing they gradually sink to the level of the surrounding country. Along Stafford Heights was posted the army of Burnside-104,903 infantry, 5,884 cavalry; and 5,896 artillery, making, by the report of December 10th, 116,683 men present for duty equipped. On the Spottsylvania hills, a cannon-shot away, lay Lee's legions 78,--513 of all arms, which included the cavalry brigades of Hampton and W. E. Jones, both of whom were absent. A river and a plain lay between the hostile forces, and the Northern troops had to cross both to reach the Southern position. The Federal batteries commanded the town of Fredericksburg and the contiguous plain, while the Confederate batteries everywhere swept the open
Ulysses S. Grant, Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, The campaign in Georgia-Sherman's March to the sea-war anecdotes-the March on Savannah- investment of Savannah-capture of Savannah (search)
arrival to invest the place, and found that the enemy had placed torpedoes in the ground, which were to explode when stepped on by man or beast. One of these exploded under an officer's horse, blowing the animal to pieces and tearing one of the legs of the officer so badly that it had to be amputated. Sherman at once ordered his prisoners to the front, moving them in a compact body in advance, to either explode the torpedoes or dig them up. No further explosion took place. On the 10th of December the siege of Savannah commenced. Sherman then, before proceeding any further with operations for the capture of the place, started with some troops to open communication with our fleet, which he expected to find in the lower harbor or as near by as the forts of the enemy would permit. In marching to the coast he encountered Fort McAllister, which it was necessary to reduce before the supplies he might find on shipboard could be made available. Fort McAllister was soon captured by an
J. B. Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary, chapter 10 (search)
nded at the action of Gen. Winder, and thought it was a dangerous exercise of military power to arrest persons of such high standing, without the clearest evidence of guilt. Mr. Custis had signed the ordinance of secession, and that ought to be sufficient evidence of his loyalty. December 9 Gen. Winder informed me to-day that he had been ordered to release Mr. Custis; and I learned that the Secretary of War had transmitted orders to Gen. Huger to permit him to pass over the bay. December 10 Nothing new. December 11 Several of Gen. Winder's detectives came to me with a man named Webster, who, it appears, has been going between Richmond and Baltimore, conveying letters, money, etc. I refused him a passport. He said he could get it from the Secretary himself, but that it was sometimes difficult in gaining access to him. I told him to get it, then; I would give him none. December 12 More of Gen. Winder's men came with a Mr. Stone, whom they knew and vouched for,
J. B. Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary, chapter 22 (search)
eading in this city to an alarming extent. This is the feast to which Burnside is invited. They are vaccinating the clerks in the departments. Gen. Floyd writes the government that, as the enemy cannot advance from the West before spring, Echol's and Marshall's forces (10,000) might be used on the seaboard. I wish they were here. The United States forces in the field, by their own estimates, amount to 800,000. We have not exceeding 250,000; but they are not aware of that. December 10 Not a word from the Rappahannock. But there soon will be. Official dispatches from Gen. Bragg confirm the achievement of Col. Morgan, acting as brigadier-general. There was a fight, several hundred being killed and wounded on both sides; but Morgan's victory was complete, his captures amounting to 1800 men, a battery, wagon train, etc. We have also a dispatch that Major-Gen. Lovell, the Yankee, had a battle with the enemy, killing, wounding, and capturing 34! A characteri
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