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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Mucia'nus, P. Lici'nius Crassus Dives was the son of P. Mucius Scaevola, consul B. C. 175, and brother of P. Mucius Scaevola, who was consul B. C. 133, in the year in which Tib. Gracchus lost his life. (Plut. Tib. Gracchus, 9.) Mucianus was adopted by P. Licinius Crassus Dives, who was the son of P. Licinius Crassus Dives, consul B. C. 205. This at least is Drumann's opinion, who thinks that it is more probable that he was adopted by the son than by the father. On being adopted he assumed, accd bequeathed it to the Romans. Crassus was the first pontifex maximus, according to Livy (Liv. Epit. 59) who went beyond the limits of Italy; but this is not true, unless Scipio Nasica was deprived of his office, for Nasica was pontifex maximus B. C. 133, after the death of Tib. Gracchus, and retired to Asia, where he soon died. (Plut. Tib. Gracchus, 21.) Crassus succeeded Nasica in the pontificate. Crassus was unsuccessful in the war. He was attacked at the siege of Leucae by Aristonicus, and
Octavius 5. M. Octavius, may be, as Drumann has stated, a younger son of No. 3, so far as the time at which he lived is concerned, but no ancient writer speaks of him as his son. It would appear from Obsequens (100.130) that he bore the surname of Caecina. but the reading is nerhans faulty. He was the colleague of Tib. Gracchus in the tribunate of the plebs, B. C. 133, and opposed his tribunitian veto to the passing of the agrarian law. The history of his opposition, and the way in which he was in consequence deposed from his office by Tib. Gracchus, are fully detailed in the life of the latter. [Vol. II. p. 292a.] Octavius is naturally either praised or blamed according to the different views entertained by persons of the laws of Gracchus. Cicero (Cic. Brut. 25) calls Octavius civis in rebus optimis constantissimus, and praises him for his skill in speaking. We learn from Plutarch that Octavius was a personal friend of Gracchus, and that it was with considerable reluctance that
Piso 9. L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, consul B. C. 133. His descent is quite uncertain, since neither the Fasti nor coins mention the name of his father. From his integrity and conscientiousness he received the surname of Frugi, which is perhaps nearly equivalent to our "man of honour," but the exact force of which is explained at length by Cicero (Tusc. 3.18). Piso was tribune of the plebs, B. C. 149, in which year he proposed the first law for the punishment of extortion in the provinces (Lex Calpurnia de Repetundis, Cic. Brut. 27, Verr. 3.84, 4.25, de Off. 2.21). In B. C. 133 he was consul with P. Mucius Scaevola, and was sent into Italy against the slaves. He gained a victory over them, but did not subdue them, and was succeeded in the command by the consul P. Rupilius (Oros. 5.9; V. Max. 2.7.9). Piso was a staunch supporter of the aristocratical party; and though he would not look over their crimes, as his law against extortion shows, still he was as little disposed to tolerate any
Piso 10. L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, the son of No. 9, and a worthy inheritor of his surname, served with distinction under his father in Sicily, in B. C. 133, and died in Spain about B. C. 111, whither he had gone as propraetor. (Cic. Ver. 4.25; V. Max. 4.3.10; Appian, App. Hisp. 99.)
Pompeius 4. POMPEIUS, is mentioned as one of the opponents of Tib. Gracchus in B. C. 133 : he stated that, as he lived near Gracchus, he knew that Eudemus of Pergamum had given a diadem out of the royal treasures and a purple robe to Gracchus, and he also promised to accuse the latter as soon as his year of office as tribune had expired. (Plut. TG 14; Oros. 5.8.) Drumann makes this Pompeius the son of No. 3, and likewise tribune of the plebs for B. C. 132; but although neither of these suppositions is impossible, there is still no authority for them. It is not impossible that this Pompeius is the same as the preceding ; and as the latter very likely possessed public land, he would be ready enough to oppose Gracchus, although he had previously belonged to the popular party. We have likewise seen from his conduct in the Numantine war that he had no great regard for truth.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Scae'vola, Mu'cius 5. P. Mucius Scaevola, was probably the son of P. Mucius Scaevola [No. 3]. Publius Mucius, Manilius, and Brutus, are called by Pomponius (Dig. 1. tit. 2. s. 2.9) the founders of the Jus Civile. Publius was tribunus plebis, B. C. 141, in which year he brought L. Hostilius Tubulus to trial for mal-administration as praetor (Rein, Criminalrecht der K├Âmer, p. 602): he was praetor urbanus in B. C. 136. In B. C. 133, Publius was consul with L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, the year in which Tib. Gracchus lost his life. In B. C. 131, he succeeded his brother Mucianus [MUCIANUS] as Pontifex Maximus. Plutarch (Tib. Gracchus, 100.9) says, that Tib. Gracchus consulted P. Scaevola about the provisions of his Agrarian Law. When Tiberius was a candidate for a second tribuneship, and the opposite faction had resolved to put him down, Scipio Nasica in the senate " entreated the consul (Mucius) to protect the state, and put down the tyrant. The consul, however, answered mildly, that he wo
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Scae'vola, Mu'cius 7. Q. Mucius Scaevola, was the son of Publius, consul, B. C. 133, and pontifex maximus (Cic. Off. 1.32, 3.15), and an example whom Cicero quotes, of a son who aimed at excellence in that which had given his fattier distinction. He was tribunus plebis in B. C. 106, the year in which Cicero was born, aedilis curulis in B. C. 104, and consul in B. C. 95, with L. Licinius Crassus, the orator, as his colleague. In their consulate was enacted the Lex Mucia Licinia de Civitate (Cic. Off. 3.11), a measure which appears to have contributed to bring on the Marsic or Social War. After his consulship Scaevola was the governor (proconsul) of the province Asia, in which capacity he gained the esteem of the people who were under his government; and, to show their gratitude, the Greeks of Asia instituted a festival day (dies Mucia) to commemorate the virtues of their governor (comp. Valer. Max. 8.15). Subsequently he was made pontifex maximus, by which title he is often distinguis
he army, which had become almost disorganised by sensual indulgences. After bringing the troops into an efficient condition by his severe and energetic measures, he laid siege to Numantia, which wa s defended by its inhabitants with the same courage and perseverance which has pre-eminently distinguished the Spaniards in all ages in defence of their walled towns. It was not till they had suffered the most dreadful extremities of famine that they surrendered the place in the following year, B. C. 133. Fifty of the principal inhabitants were selected to adorn Scipio's triumph, the rest were sold as slaves, and the town was levelled to the ground. He now received the surname of Numantinus in addition to that of Africanus. While Scipio was employed in the reduction of Numantia, Rome was convulsed by the disturbances consequent upon the measures proposed by Tib. Gracchus in his tribunate, and which ended in the murder of the latter. Although Scipio was married to Sempronia, the sister of t
s Brutus. In consequence of the severity with which he and his colleague conducted the levy of troops, they were thrown into prison by C. Curiatius, the tribune of the plebs. It was this Curiatius who gave Nasica the nick-name of Serapio, from his resemblance to a dealer in sacrificial animals, or some other person of low rank, who was called by this name; but though given him in derision, it afterwards became his distinguishing surname (Liv. Epit. 55 ; V. Max. 9.14.3; Plin. Nat. 7.10). In B. C. 133, when the tribes met to re-elect Tib. Gracchus to the tribunate, and the utmost confusion prevailed in the forum, Nasica called upon the consuls to save the republic; but as they refused to have recourse to violence, he exclaimed, " As the consul betrays the state, do you who wish to obey the laws follow me," and so saying rushed forth from the temple of Fides, where the senate was sitting, followed by the greater number of the senators. The people gave way before them, and Gracchus was a
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ated to Tubero a treatise De Officiis (Cic. de Off. 3.15). He was the son of Q. Aelius Tubero, who was the son-in-law of L. Aemilius Paulus. [See above, No. 3.] Tubero the son had a reputation for talent and legal knowledge. (Cic. Brut. 31, pro Muren. 100.36; Tac. Ann. 16.2; Gel. 1.22.) Plutarch (Plut. Luc. 100.39) attributes to this Tubero the saying that Lucullus was " Xerxes in a toga ;" but this is a mistake, for Tubero the Stoic was a contemporary of the Gracchi and tribunus plebis in B. C. 133, the year in which Tiberius was also tribunus plebis. Lucullus could not play the part of Xerxes in a toga earlier than B. C. 63. In B. C. 129 Tubero failed in his candidateship for the praetorship, but in B. C. 123 he was praetor. Pomponius says that he was also consul, but it has been inferred from the passage in the Brutus (100.31) that he never obtained the consulship. He appears however to have been consul suffectus in B. C. 118. He was an opponent of C. Gracchus as well as of Tiberiu
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