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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 39 39 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 5 5 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 23-25 (ed. Frank Gardener Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University) 1 1 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 1 1 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 1 1 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 1 1 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 1 1 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 1 1 Browse Search
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Appian, Punic Wars (ed. Horace White), CHAPTER XI (search)
CHAPTER XI Third Punic War -- No Excuse for It -- Utica joins the Romans -- Hostages demanded of Carthage -- Pitiful Scenes when the Hostages were sent -- Roman Army lands at Utica -- Embassy from Carthage Y.R. 605 Such was the war between Masinissa and the carthaginians. B.C. 149 The third and last Punic war of the Romans in Africa followed it. The Carthaginians having suffered this calamity at the hands of Masinissa, and the city being much weakened by it, they began to be apprehensive of the king himself, who was still near them with a large army, and also of the Romans, who were always harboring ill-will toward them and would make the affairs of Masinissa an excuse for it. They were not wrong in either particular. The Romans, when they learned the foregoing facts, straightway began to collect an army throughout all Italy, not telling what it was intended for, but in order, they said, to have it ready for emergencies. The Carthaginians, thinking to put an e
Polybius, Histories, book 6, Powers of the Senate (search)
to it. But the most important point of all is that the judges are taken from its members in the majority of trials, whether public or private, in which the charges are heavy.This refers primarily to the consilium of the quaesitor in any special quaestio, which up to the time of the lex judiciaria of Gracchus, B. C. 122, was invariably composed of Senators. The same would apply to the Quaestiones perpetuae, only one of which existed in the time of Polybius, i.e., de repetundis, established in 149 B.C. by the lex Calpurnia. Other single judices in civil suits, though nominated by the Praetor, were, Polybius intimates, almost necessarily Senators in cases of importance. Consequently, all citizens are much at its mercy; and being alarmed at the uncertainty as to when they may need its aid, are cautious about resisting or actively opposing its will. and Consul. And for a similar reason men do not rashly resist the wishes of the Consuls, because one and all may become subject to their abso
Polybius, Histories, book 36, War With Carthage Resolved Upon (search)
War With Carthage Resolved Upon When the Carthaginians had been some time deliberating B. C. 149. Utica puts itself under the protection of Rome. how they should meet the message from Rome they were reduced to a state of the utmost embarrassment by the people of Utica anticipating their design by putting themselves under the protection of Rome. This seemed their only hope of safety left: and they imagined that such a step must win them favour at Rome: for to submit to put themselves and their country under control was a thing which they had never done even in their darkest hour of danger and defeat, with the enemy at their very walls. Carthaginian plenipotentiaries at Rome. And now they had lost all the fruit of this resolve by being anticipated by the people of Utica; for it would appear nothing novel or strange to the Romans if they only did the same as that people. Accordingly, with a choice of two evils only left, to accept war with courage or to surrender their independence, af
Polybius, Histories, book 36, The Roman Army In Africa (search)
The Roman Army In Africa The hostages being thus disposed of, the consuls brought their fleet to the citadel of Utica. When news of this reached Carthage, the city was in the utmost excitement and panic, not knowing what to expect next. The Consuls, L. Marcius Censorinus, M'. Manilius, land in Africa. B. C. 149. However, it was decided to send envoys to ask the consuls what they were to do, and to state that they were all prepared to obey orders. The envoys arrived at the Roman camp: the general's council was summoned: and they delivered their commission. They demand the disarming of the Carthaginians. The senior Consul thereupon, after complimenting them on their policy and readiness to obey, bade them hand over all arms and missiles in their possession without subterfuge or concealment. The envoys answered that they would carry out the directions, but begged the Consul to consider what would happen if the Carthaginians surrendered all their arms, and the Romans took them and sail
Polybius, Histories, book 37, Pseudo-Philip (search)
Pseudo-Philip Such were the criticisms commonly made on the dealings The pretended Philip, son of Perseus, B. C. 149. of the Romans with the Carthaginians. But as to the Pseudo-Philip, the report at first appeared quite beneath consideration. A Philip suddenly appears in Macedonia, as though he had dropped from the skies, in contempt of Macedonians and Romans alike, without having the least reasonable pretext for his claim, as every one knew that the real Philip had died in Alba in Italy two years after Perseus himself. But when, three or four months afterwards, a report arrived that he had conquered the Macedonians in a battle in the territory of the Odomanti beyond the Strymon, some believed it, but the majority were still incredulous. But presently, when news came that he had conquered the Macedonians in a battle on this side of the Strymon, and was master of all Macedonia; and when letters and envoys came from the Thessalians to the Achaeans imploring help, as though the danger w
Polybius, Histories, book 37, Polybius Goes to Lilybaeum to Negotiate (search)
Polybius Goes to Lilybaeum to Negotiate A despatch from Manius Manilius to the Achaeans Polybius sent for to negotiate with Carthage, B. C. 149. having reached the Peloponnese, saying that they would oblige him by sending Polybius of Megalopolis with all speed to Lilybaeum, as he was wanted on account of certain public affairs, the Achaeans decided to send him in accordance with the letter of the consul. And as I felt bound to obey the Romans, I put everything else aside, and sailed at the beginning of summer. But when we arrived at Corcyra, we found another despatch from the consul to the Corcyreans had come, announcing that the Carthaginians had already surrendered all the hostages to them, and were prepared to obey them.Livy, Ep. 49. Thinking, therefore, that the war was at an end, and that there was no more occasion for our services, we sailed back to the Peloponnese. . . .
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 24 (ed. Frank Gardener Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University), chapter 49 (search)
Gala had a son Masinissa,Who fought against the Romans in Spain down to the time of Gala's death in 206 B.C., and then became an ally of Rome, and a friend of Scipio. At present he must have been nearer twenty-seven, since he died in 149 B.C. at 92 (Epit. 48 fin.; cf. 50). seventeen years old, but a young man of such promise that even then it was evident that he would make the kingdom larger and richer than what he had received. The legates stated that, inasmuch as Syphax had attached himself to the Romans, in order, through alliance with them, to be more powerful against the kings and peoples of Africa, it would be well for Gala too to attach himself as soon as possible to the Carthaginians, before Syphax should cross into Spain or the Romans into Africa. Syphax could be surprised, they said, while he had as yet no advantage from his treaty with the Romans except the name. They easily persuaded Gala to send an army, as his son was begging for the command; and reinf
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., Roman Oratory. (search)
reasons, the art of oratory was perhaps more highly esteemed and of greater practical value in the later period of the Roman Republic than at any other time in the history of the world. But even from the very establishment of the commonwealth, oratory was highly prized, and Cicero gives a long roll of distinguished orators from the First Secession of the Plebs (B.C. 494) to his own time. The most eminent of those whose art was still uninfluenced by Greek rhetoric, was Cato the Censor (died B.C. 149), who may be called the last of the natural Roman orators. His speeches are lost, but more than a hundred and fifty of them were known to Cicero, who praises them as acutae, elegantes, facetae, breves. It was in Cato's lifetime that the introduction of Greek art and letters into Rome took place; and oratory, like all other forms of literature, felt the new influence at once. The oration, though still valued most for its effectiveness, soon came to be looked on as an artistic work as well.
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., section 14 (search)
emphat.): these wars have a place in the argument solely on account of their motive. The events referred to are the following: Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, was defeated by Scipio Asiaticus at Magnesia, B.C. 190. Philip V, king of Macedonia, was defeated by Flamininus, at Cynoscephalae, B.C. 197. The Aetolians had helped Rome against Philip, and then joined Antiochus against her; they were obliged to submit after the battle of Magnesia. Carthage had been forced into a third war in B.C. 149, and was taken and destroyed by Scipio Aemilianus in B.C. 146. agatur, etc., it is a question of your richest revenues. The province of Asia, like Sicily, paid as a tax the tenth of all products (decumae). The collection of this was farmed out by the censors to companies of publicani belonging to the equestrian order. All other provinces regularly paid a stipendium, or fixed tax, which they raised themselves. tanta, only so great. eis, abl. with contenti. via contenti, i.e. they wi
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, M. MANLIUS, DOMUS (search)
M. MANLIUS, DOMUS an aedicula (Cic. Paradox. vi. 50) on the Carinae. This Manlius was consul in 149 B.C.
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