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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 84 84 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 7 7 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 4 4 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography 3 3 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 3 3 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 3 3 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 43-45 (ed. Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 43-45 (ed. Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 1 1 Browse Search
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Strabo, Geography, Book 7, chapter 7 (search)
people keep revolting; indeed, the Romans, after being set up as masters by the inhabitants, encamp in their very houses.Now standing empty. Be this as it may, PolybiusPolybius 30.16. says that Paulus,Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus (consul 182 and 168 B.C.) in 168 B.C. after his subjection of Perseus and the Macedonians, destroyed seventy cities of the Epeirotes (most of which, he adds, belonged to the Molossi),See 7. 7. 8. and reduced to slavery one hundred and fifty thousand people. Neverthe168 B.C. after his subjection of Perseus and the Macedonians, destroyed seventy cities of the Epeirotes (most of which, he adds, belonged to the Molossi),See 7. 7. 8. and reduced to slavery one hundred and fifty thousand people. Nevertheless, I shall attempt, in so far as it is appropriate to my description and as my knowledge reaches, to traverse the several different parts, beginning at the seaboard of the Ionian Gulf—that is, where the voyage out of the Adrias ends. Of this seaboard, then, the first parts are those about Epidamnus and Apollonia. From Apollonia to Macedonia one travels the Egnatian Road, towards the east; it has been measured by Roman miles and marked by pillars as far as CypselaNow Ipsala. and the HebrusN
Strabo, Geography, Book 7, chapter fragments (search)
mothrace as Imbros is. From Caracoma one comes to Doriscus,Now Tulsa. where Xerxes enumerated his army; then to the Hebrus, which is navigable inland to Cypsela,Now Ipsala. a distance of one hundred and twenty stadia. This, hesc. Strabo. says, was the boundary of the Macedonia which the Romans first took away from Perseus and afterwards from the Pseudo-Philip.The younger brother of Perseus, whom Perseus regarded as his heir. Now Paulus,Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus, in his second consulship, 168 B.C., defeated Perseus near Pydna. who captured Perseus, annexed the Epeirotic tribes to Macedonia, divided the country into four parts for purposes of administration, and apportioned one part to Amphipolis, another to Thessaloniceia, another to Pella, and another to the Pelagonians. Along the Hebrus live the Corpili, and, still farther up the river, the Brenae, and then, farthermost of all, the Bessi, for the river is navigable thus far. All these tribes are given to brigandage, but most o
Appian, Macedonian Affairs (ed. Horace White), Fragments (search)
an alliance with Perseus in consideration of 300 talents, of which he had received a part down, made an attack upon Roman Illyria, and when the Romans sent Perpenna and Petilius as ambassadors to inquire about it, he put them in chains. When Perseus learned this he decided not to pay the rest of the money, thinking that now the Romans would make war on him for this outrage. He also sent legates to the Getæ on the other side of the Danube, and he offered money to Eumenes if he would come B.C. 168 over to his side, or negotiate for him a peace with Rome, or help neither party in the contest. He hoped either that Eumenes would do some one of these things, which could not be kept secret from the Romans, or that he should cause Eumenes to be suspected by the very attempt. Eumenes refused to come over to his side, and he demanded 1500 talents for negotiating a peace, or 1000 for remaining neutral. But now Perseus, learning that 10,000 foot and as many horse were coming to him as mercenarie
Appian, Illyrian Wars (ed. Horace White), CHAPTER II (search)
And such was the second conflict and treaty between them and the Illyrians. The following events I have written as I have found them, not in due order according to their times of occurrence, but rather taking each Illyrian nation separately. When the Romans were at war with the Macedonians during the reign of Perseus, the successor of Philip, Genthius, an Illyrian chief, made an alliance with Perseus for money and Y.R. 586 attacked Roman Illyria. When the Romans sent ambassadors B.C. 168 to him on this subject he put them in chains, charging that they had not come as ambassadors, but as spies. The Roman general, Anicius, in a naval expedition, captured some of Genthius' pinnaces and then engaged him in battle on land, defeated him, and shut him up in a castle. When he begged a parley Anicius ordered him to surrender himself to the Romans. He asked and obtained three days for consideration, at the end of which time, his subjects having meanwhile gone over to Anicius, he asked
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Summary of the Work (search)
, and the war for the possession of Coele-Syria. In the same book I stated my reasons for devoting my first two books to a sketch of the period preceding those events. I will now, after a few prefatory remarks as to the scope of my own work, address myself to giving a complete account of these wars, the causes which led to them, and which account for the proportions to which they attained. The one aim and object, then, of all that I have undertakenA summary of the work from B. C. 220 to B. C. 168. to write is to show how, when, and why all the known parts of the world fell under the dominion of Rome. Now as this great event admits of being exactly dated as to its beginning, duration, and final accomplishment, I think it will be advantageous to give, by way of preface, a summary statement of the most important phases in it between the beginning and the end. For I think I shall thus best secure to the student an adequate idea of my whole plan; for as the comprehension of the whole is a
Polybius, Histories, book 29, Speech of L. Aemilius Paullus (search)
Speech of L. Aemilius Paullus "THEIR one idea, expressed at parties or conversations in B. C. 168. Coss. L. Aemilius Paullus, C. Licinius Crassus. A fragment of the speech of L. Aemilius before starting for Macedonia. See Livy, 44, 22. the street, was, that they should manage the war in Macedonia while remaining quietly at home in Rome, sometimes by criticising what the generals were doing, at others what they were leaving undone. From this the public interests never got any good, and often a great deal of harm. The generals themselves were at times greatly hampered by this ill-timed loquacity. For as it is the invariable nature of slander to spread rapidly and stop at nothing, the people got thoroughly infected by this idle talk, and the generals were consequently rendered contemptible in the eyes of the enemy." . . .
Polybius, Histories, book 29, Eumenes Intrigues With Perseus (search)
igue and scheme against each other secretly, and that they were both doing. For when Eumenes saw that Perseus was in a bad way, and was hemmed in on every side by his enemies, and would accept any terms for the sake of putting an end to the war, and was sending envoys to the Roman generals year after year with this view; while the Romans also were uneasy about the result, because they made no real progress in the war until Paulus took the command, and because Aetolia was in a dangerous state of excitement, he conceived that it would not be impossible that the Romans would consent to some means of ending the war and making terms: and he looked upon himself as the most proper person to act as mediator and effect the reconciliation. B. C. 168. With these secret ideas in his mind, he began sounding Perseus by means of Cydas of Crete, the year before, to find out how much he would be inclined to pay for such a chance. This appears to me to be the origin of their connexion with each other.
Polybius, Histories, book 29, Turbulent Assembly at Rhodes (search)
Turbulent Assembly at Rhodes When the embassy led by Parmenio and Morcus The manner in which this vote of the Rhodians was carried, B. C. 168. from Genthius, accompanied by those led by Metrodorus, arrived in Rhodes, the assembly summoned to meet them proved very turbulent, the party of Deinon venturing openly to plead the cause of Perseus, whilst that of Theaetetus was quite overpowered and dismayed. For the presence of the Illyrian galleys, the number of the Roman cavalry that had been killed, and the fact of Genthius having changed sides, quite crushed them. Thus it was that the result of the meeting of the assembly was as I have described it. For the Rhodians voted to return a favourable answer to both kings, to state that they had resolved to put an end to the war, and to exhort the kings themselves to make no difficulty about the terms. They also received the ambassadors of Genthius at the common altar-hearth or Prytaneum of the city with every mark of friendship. . . .
Polybius, Histories, book 29, Character of Genthius (search)
Character of Genthius Genthius, king of the Illyrians, disgraced himself by Intemperance and brutality of Genthius. many abominable actions in the course of his life from his addiction to drink, in which he indulged continually day and night. Among other things he killed his brother Plastor, who was about to marry the daughter of Monunius, and married the girl himself. He also behaved with great cruelty to his subjects. . . . In the spring of B. C. 168 Genthius was forced to surrender to the praetor L. Anicius Gallus (Livy, 44, 30-31). The consul L. Aemilius Paulus found Perseus on the left bank of the Macedonian river Enipeus in a very strong position, which was however turned by a gallant exploit of Nasica and Q. Fabius Maximus, who made their way with a considerable force over the mountains, thus getting on the rear of Perseus. Livy, 44, 30-35. Plutarch, Aemil. 15.
Polybius, Histories, book 29, Perseus Loses His Resolve (search)
Perseus Loses His Resolve The consul Lucius Aemilius had never seen a phalanx The phalanx at the battle of Pydna, B. C. 168. until he saw it in the army of Perseus on this occasion; and he often confessed to some of his friends at Rome subsequently, that he had never beheld anything more alarming and terrible than the Macedonian phalanx: and yet he had been, if any one ever had, not only a spectator but an actor in many battles. . . . Many plans which look plausible and feasible, when brought to the test of actual experience, like base coins when brought to the furnace, cease to answer in any way to their original conceptions. . . . When Perseus came to the hour of trial his courage all left him, like that of an athlete in bad training. For when the danger was approaching, and it became necessary to fight a decisive battle, his resolution gave way. . . . As soon as the battle began, the Macedonian king played the coward and rode off to the town, under the pretext of sacrificing to He
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