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crossed the Pyrenees near their western extremity, and plunged into the heart of Gaul. What were his relations with the Gallic tribes--whether the period spent by him among them was occupied in peace or war--we know not; but, before he reached the foot of the Alps, many ot them had been induced to join him, and the mention among these of the Arverni shows how deep into the country he had penetrated. The chronology is also very obscure. It is certain that the battle of Baecula was fought in B. C. 209, but whether Hasdrubal crossed the Pyrenees the same year we have no evidence: he must, at all events, have spent one winter in Gaul, as it was not till the spring of 207 that he crossed the Alps, and descended into Italy. The passage of the Alps appears to have presented but trifling difficulties, compared with what his brother Hannibal had encountered eleven years before; and he arrived in Italy so much earlier than he was expected, that the Romans had no army in Cisalpine Gaul ready to
Gisco took in these is nowhere mentioned, but it is difficult to avoid the conjecture that they were in great part owing to his jealousy of the sons of Hamilcar; and Polybius expressly charges him (9.11, 10.35, 36) with alienating the minds of the Spaniards by his arrogance and rapacity, among others that of Indibilis, one of the chiefs who had been most faithfully attached to the Carthaginian cause. [INDIBILIS.] When Hasdrubal the son of Hamilcar, after his defeat at Baecula by Scipio (B. C. 209), moved northwards across the Tagus, he was joined by his two colleagues, and, at the council of war held by them, it was agreed, that while the son of Hamilcar should prosecute his march to Italy, the son of Gisco should confine himself to the defence of Lusitania and the western provinces of Spain, taking care to avoid a battle with Scipio. (Liv. 27.20.) This accounts for his inaction during the following year. In the summer of 207 we hear of him in the extreme south, near Gades, where
the Ebro to the haven of the Carthaginian capital of Spain. Laelius, during the assault, blockaded the port, after its capture occupied the city with his marines, and, for his services, received from Scipio a golden wreath and thirty oxen. (Plb. 10.3, 9; Liv. xxvi, 42, 48; Appian, Hispan. 20.) Having assisted in distributing the booty, the hostages, and the prizes of valour to the soldiers, he was dispatched to Rome with the captives and the tidings of victory. He arrived thither early in B. C. 209, and, after reporting to the senate and the people the fall of New Carthage, and delivering up his prisoners-among whom were Mago, the governor of the city, fifteen members of the great council of Carthage, and two members of the council of elders,-he rejoined Scipio at Tarraco. (Plb. 10.18, 19, 37; Liv. 26.48, 51, 27.7.) Throughout the war in Spain, Sicily, and Africa, Laelius acted as confidential legatus to his friend, nor until B. C. 202, when the senate appointed him Scipio's quaestor
Laeto'rius 5. C. Laetorius, curule aedile, B. C. 216, sent as ambassador by the senate to the consuls App. Claudius and Q. Fulvius Flaccus, B. C. 212, praetor, B. C. 210, and decenlvir sacris faciundis, B. C. 209. (Liv. 23.30, 25.22, 26.23, 27.7, 8.)
nce was dangerous to the public peace, he exported them to Rhegium, where they did the republic good service as a predatory force against Hannibal in Bruttium. The senate then ordered Laevinus to return to Rome, to hold the consular comitia for B. C. 209. But presently after his arrival he was remanded to his province, which was threatened with a fresh invasion from Africa. He was directed to nominate a dictator, to preside at the elections. But on this point Laevinus and the senate were at vaught in a bill, with the concurrence of the senate, to compel Laevinus's obedience to its orders. But he left Rome abruptly, and the nomination was at length made by his colleague Marcellus. Laevinus continued in Sicily as pro-consul throughout B. C. 209. His army consisted of the remains of Varro's and Cn. Fulvius Flaccus's legions, which, for their respective defeats by Hannibal at Cannae in B. C. 216, and at Herdonea in 212, were sentenced to remain abroad while the war lasted. To these he a
Lentulus 8. L. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus, L. F. L. N., son of No. 6, curule aedile in B. C. 209. (Liv. 27.21.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
uge into the citadel, which he maintained, notwithstanding all the attempts of Hannibal to dislodge him. In course of time the Roman troops suffered dreadfully, from want of In B. C. 210, D. Quintius was sent with a fleet to convey provisions to the citadel, but was defeated by the Tarentines; this disaster, however, was counterbalanced by a victory which Livius gained at the same time by land. Livius continued in possession of the citadel till the town was retaken by Q. Fabius Maximus in B. C. 209. In the following year there was a warm debate in the senate respecting Livius Macatus; some maintaining that he ought to be punished for losing the town, others that he deserved to be rewarded for having kept the citadel for five years, and a third party thinking that it was a matter which did not belong to the senate, and that if punishment was deserved, it ought to be inflicted by the censorial nota. The latter view was the one adopted by the majority of the senate. Macatus was warmly s
Mago 10. Commander of the garrison of New Carthage when that city was attacked by P. Scipio in B. C. 209. So little had the Carthaginian generals thought it necessary to provide for the defence of this important post, that Mago had only 1000 regular troops under his orders when the enemy appeared before the walls. He, however, armed about 2000 more as best he could, and seems to have displayed all the qualities of an able and energetic officer; making a vigorous sally in the first instance, and repulsing the troops of Scipio in their first assault. But all his efforts were ineffectual: the Romans scaled the walls where they had been supposed to be guarded by a lagoon, and made themselves masters of the town; and Mago, who had at first retired into the citadel, with the intention of holding out there, at length saw that all further resistance was hopeless, and surrendered to Scipio. He himself, with the other more eminent of the Carthaginian captives, was sent a prisoner of war to Rom
Massi'va 1. A Numidian, grandson of Gala, king of the Massylians, and nephew of Masinissa, whom he accompanied while yet a mere boy into Spain. At the battle of Baecula (B. C. 209), on which occasion he had for the first time been allowed to bear arms, he was taken prisoner; but Scipio, on learning who he was, treated him with the utmost distinction, and sent him back without ransom to his uncle. This generous conduct of the Roman general is said to have had a great share in gaining over Masinissa to the Roman alliance. (Liv. 27.19, 28.35; V. Max. 5.1.7.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
us advanced on horseback to greet his son. He was passing the lictors when the consul sternly bade him dismount. "My son," exclaimed the elder Fabius alighting, " I wished to see whether you would remember that you were consul." On Hannibal's march upon Rome, in B. C. 211, Fabius was again the principal stay of the senate, and earnestly dissuaded abandoning the siege of Capua, which would have been yielding to the Carthaginian's feint on the capital. Fabius was consul for the fifth time in B. C. 209, was invested with the almost hereditary title of the Fabii Maximi-Princeps senatus,-and inflicted a deadly wound on Hannibal's tenure of Southern Italy by the recapture of Tarentum. The citadel of Tarentum had never fallen into the hands of the Carthaginians, and M. Livius Macatus, its governor, some years afterwards, claimed the merit of recovering the town. " Certainly," rejoined Fabius, " had you not lost, I had never retaken it." (Plut. Fab. 23; Cic. de Orat. 2.67.) The plunder of the
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