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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 41 41 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 7 7 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 4 4 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 26-27 (ed. Frank Gardner Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University) 2 2 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 31-34 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 31-34 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 31-34 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 21-22 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography 1 1 Browse Search
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Strabo, Geography, Book 6, chapter 2 (search)
Italy on the north and on the west the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Islands of Aeolus. The cities along the side that forms the Strait are, first, Messene, and then Tauromenium, Catana, and Syracuse; but those that were between Catana and Syracuse have disappeared—NaxusFounded about 734 B.C. and destroyed by Dionysius in 403 B.C. (see Diod. Sic. 14.14), but it is placed by the commentators and maps between Tauromenium and Catana. and Megara;Founded about the same time as Naxus and destroyed about 214 B.C. and on this coast are the outlets of the Symaethus and all rivers that flow down from Aetna and have good harbors at their mouths; and here too is the promontory of Xiphonia. According to Ephorus these were the earliest Greek cities to be founded in Sicily, that is, in the tenth generation after the Trojan war; for before that time men were so afraid of the bands of Tyrrhenian pirates and the savagery of the barbarians in this region that they would not so much as sail thither for tr
Appian, Sicily and the Other Islands (ed. Horace White), Fragments (search)
ans appealed to the Romans for aid against the Africans. The Romans did not send them a military force, but allowed them to draw supplies from Italy and Sicily, and to recruit mercenaries in Italy for this war only. They also sent deputies to Africa to arrange peace if they could, but they returned without accomplishing anything. The Carthaginians prosecuted the war vigorously. FROM PEIRESC Y.R. 540 Hippocrates and Epicydes, two brothers, were generals B.C. 214 of the Syracusans. They had been for a long time incensed against the Romans, and when they could not stir up their fellow-countrymen to war, they went over to the Leontines, who had some differences with the Syracusans. They accused their own countrymen of renewing a separate league with the Romans, although Hiero had made one to include the whole of Sicily. The Leontines were much stirred up by this. The Syracusans made proclamation that if anybody would bring them the head of Hippocrates o
Polybius, Histories, book 7, Fall of Heronymus (search)
Fall of Heronymus Some of the historians who have described the fall of Fall of Hieronymus, B. C. 214. Hieronymus have written at great length and in terms of mysterious solemnity. They tell us of prodigies preceding his coming to the throne, and of the misfortunes of Syracuse. They describe in dramatic language the cruelty of his character and the impiety of his actions; and crown all with the sudden and terrible nature of the circumstances attending his fall. One would think from their description that neither Phalaris, nor Apollodorus, nor any other tyrant was ever fiercer than he. Yet he was a mere boy when he succeeded to power, and only lived thirteen months after. In this space of time it is possible that one or two men may have been put to the rack, or certain of his friends, or other Syracusan citizens, put to death; but it is improbable that his tyranny could have been extravagantly wicked, or his impiety outrageous. It must be confessed that he was reckless and unscrupulou
Polybius, Histories, book 8, Rome and Carthage Continue to Covet Sardinia and Sicily (search)
inue to Covet Sardinia and Sicily It appears to me not to be alien to my general Sardinia reduced by T. Manlius Torquatus, B. C. 215. Marcellus took Leontini, B. C. 214 (autumn). Livy, 24, 30. purpose, and the plan which I originally laid down, to recall the attention of my readers to the magnitude of the events, and the persistenccius Galba Cos. (B. C. 211.) sent to Macedonia. Livy, 26, 22; 27, 31. Appius Claudius Pulcher, Praetor, sent to Sicily, B. C. 215. Livy, 23, 31, Pro-praetor, B. C. 214. Livy 24, 33. The Romans had two complete armies under the two Consuls on active service in Italy; two in Iberia in which Gnaeus Cornelius commanded the land, Publihilip, of which first Marcus Valerius, and afterward Publius Sulpicius was in command. Along with all these undertakings Appius with a hundred quinqueremes, and Marcus Claudius with an army, were threatening Sicily; while Hamilcar was doing the same on the side of the Carthaginians. Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Cos. III., B. C. 214.
Polybius, Histories, book 8, Syracuse's Defenses (search)
Syracuse's Defenses When Epicydes and Hippocrates had occupied Syracuse, Siege of Syracuse, B. C. 215-214. and had alienated the rest of the citizens with themselves from the friendship of Rome, the Romans who had already been informed of the murder of Hieronymus, tyrant of Syracuse, appointed Appius Claudius as Pro-praetor to command a land force, while Marcus Claudius Marcellus commanded the fleet. These officers took up a position not far from Syracuse, and determined to assault the town from the land at Hexapylus, and by sea at what was called Stoa Scytice in Achradina, where the wall has its foundation close down to the sea. Having prepared their wicker pent-houses, and darts, and other siege material, they felt confident that, with so many hands employed, they would in five days get their works in such an advanced state as to give them the advantage over the enemy. Archimedes. But in this they did not take into account the abilities of Archimedes; nor calculate on the truth tha
Polybius, Histories, book 8, The Assault By Land Repulsed (search)
y tried to carry the place under cover of pent-houses, they were killed by the stones and beams let down upon their heads. The garrison also did them no little damage with those hands at the end of their engines; for they used to lift the men, armour, and all, into the air, and then throw them down. At last Appius retired into the camp, and summoning the Tribunes to a council of war, decided to try every possible means of taking Syracuse except a storm. The siege turned into a blockade, B.C. 214. Coss. Q. Fabius Maximus IV. M. Claudius Marcellus III.And this decision they carried out; for during the eight months of siege which followed, though there was no stratagem or measure of daring which they did not attempt, they never again ventured to attempt a storm. So true it is that one man and one intellect, properly qualified for the particular undertaking, is a host in itself and of extraordinary efficacy. In this instance, at any rate, we find the Romans confident that their forces by
Polybius, Histories, book 8, Bolis the Cretan Agrees to Rescue Achaeus (search)
Bolis the Cretan Agrees to Rescue Achaeus (See 7, 15-18) Bolis was by birth a Cretan, who had long enjoyed the honours of high military rank at King Ptolemy's court, and the reputation of being second to none in natural ability, adventurous daring, and experience in war. B.C. 214. Sosibius secures the help of Bolis to rescue Achaeus. By repeated arguments Sosibius secured this man's fidelity; and when he felt sure of his zeal and affection he communicated the business in hand to him. He told him that he could not do the king a more acceptable service at the present crisis than by contriving some way of saving Achaeus. At the moment Bolis listened, and retired without saying more than that he would consider the suggestion. But after two or three days' reflection, he came to Sosibius and said that he would undertake the business; remarking that, having spent some considerable time at Sardis, he knew its topography, and that Cambylus, the commander of the Cretan contingent of the army
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 22 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.), chapter 20 (search)
ed from the mainland. Here envoys from the Baliaric islands came to Scipio to sue for peace. The fleet now put about and returned to the northern part of the province, and thither flocked ambassadors from all the communities on this side of the Ebro and even from many places in farthest Spain; but the communities that gave hostages and really came under the rule and government of Rome were more than a hundred and twenty. Feeling, therefore, sufficiently strong on land, as well as on the sea, the Roman general advanced as far as the pass of Castulo.Now Cazlona. The pass led through the Sierra Morena, north of the city, which was famous for the silver and lead mines in its neighbourhood. Castulo enjoyed a close alliance with the Carthaginians and one of its daughters became the wife of Hannibal. In 214 B.C. it revolted to the Romans, but by 211 was again in the hands of the Carthaginians (xxiv. xii. 7; xxvi. xx. 6). Hasdrubal retired into Lusitania, nearer the ocean.
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 26 (ed. Frank Gardner Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University), chapter 20 (search)
allies, and there was a certain presentiment of the future, inspiring the greater fear in proportion as they were the less able to account for their unreasoned apprehension. they had withdrawn in different directions into winter quarters, Hasdrubal, the son of Gisgo, as far as the Ocean and Gades, Mago into the interior, especially beyond the Forest of Castulo. Hasdrubal, the son of Hamilcar, was the nearest to the Ebro in his winter quarters near Saguntum.Recovered by the Scipios in 214 B.C. (XXIV. xlii. 9-10), but apparently again in Carthaginian hands. Polybius places the three Carthaginian armies somewhat differently (X. vii. 5). at the end of the summer in which Capua wasB.C. 211 taken and Scipio came to Spain a Carthaginian fleet was summoned from Sicily to Tarentum to cut off the supplies of the Roman garrison which was in the citadel of Tarentum, and it had indeed closed every approach to the citadel from the sea, but by lying there for a long time it was
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 26 (ed. Frank Gardner Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University), chapter 35 (search)
the Sicilians and Campanians having been sent away, a levy was held. then, once an army had been enrolled, they began to take up the question of recruiting more oarsmen. for this purpose, inasmuch as there was neither a sufficient supply of men, nor any money at that time in the treasury out of which they might be procured and receive their pay, the consuls in an edict ordered that private citizens according to their census and classes, as before,In 214 B.C.; XXIV. xi. 7 f. should furnish oarsmen, with pay and rations for thirty days. in response to that edict there was such protest among the people, such indignation, that what was lacking for an uprising was a leader rather than fuel. next after the Sicilians and Campanians the consuls, they said, had taken upon themselves the task of ruining and destroying the Roman populace. exhausted by tribute for so many years, they had nothing left but the land, bare and desolate. their houses hadB.C. 210 been burne
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