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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 58 58 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 17 17 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 3 3 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 2 2 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 2 2 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 21-22 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 2 2 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 2 2 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 28-30 (ed. Frank Gardener Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 26-27 (ed. Frank Gardner Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 21-22 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Appian, Wars in Spain (ed. Horace White), CHAPTER I (search)
spect to Sicily from the beginning of the Roman invasion and rule of that island are embraced in the Sicilian history. The first external war waged by the Romans against the Carthaginians in reference to Sicily was waged in Sicily itself. In like manner the first one concerning Spain was waged in Spain, although in the course of it the combatants sent large forces into, and devastated, both Italy and Africa. Y.R. 536 This war began about the 140th Olympiad by the infraction B.C. 218 of a treaty which had been made at the end of the Sicilian war. The infraction came about in this way. Hamilcar, surnamed Barca, while commanding the Carthaginian forces in Sicily, had promised large rewards to his Celtic mercenaries and African allies, which they demanded after he returned to Africa; and thereupon the African war was kindled. In this war the Carthaginians suffered severely at the hands of the Africans, and they ceded Sardinia to the Romans as compensation for injuries they h
Appian, Wars in Spain (ed. Horace White), CHAPTER III (search)
CHAPTER III War declared -- The Two Scipios -- Their Defeat and Death Y.R. 536 The Romans now sent ambassadors to Carthage to B.C. 218 demand that Hannibal should be delivered up to them as a violator of the treaty unless they wished to assume the responsibility. If they would not give him up, war was to be declared forthwith. The ambassadors obeyed their instructions, and when the Carthaginians refused to give up Hannibal they declared war. It is said that it was done in the following manner. The chief of the embassy, pointing to the fold of his toga and smiling, said: "Here, Carthaginians, I bring you peace or war, you may take whichever you choose." The latter replied: "You may give us whichever you like." When the Romans offered war they all cried out: "We accept it." Then they wrote at once to Hannibal that he was free to overrun all Spain, as the treaty was at an end. Accordingly he marched against all the neighboring tribes and brought them under subjec
Appian, Hannibalic War (ed. Horace White), CHAPTER I (search)
etly inciting the Spaniards to revolt, he obtained permission from Carthage to take such steps as he should think fit. Thereupon he crossed the Iberus and destroyed the city of Saguntum with its inhabitants. Thus the treaty, made between the Romans and the Carthaginians after the war in Sicily, was broken. Y.R. 536 What Hannibal himself and what the other Carthaginian and Roman generals after him did in Spain, I have related in the Spanish history. Having collected a large B.C. 218 army of Celtiberians, Africans, and other nationalities, and put the command of Spain in the hands of his brother Hasdrubal, he crossed over the Pyrenees mountains into the country of the Celts, which is now called Gaul, with 90,000 foot, 12,000 horse, and 37 elephants. He passed through the country of the Gauls, conciliating some with money and some by persuasion, and overcoming others by force. When he came to the Alps and found no road through or over them (for they were exceedingly precip
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Plan: Causes of Wars (search)
ety and the very soil of their country; and contrary to all calculation acquired a good prospect of surprising Rome itself. I shall next try to make it clear how in the same period2. Macedonian treaty with Carthage, B. C. 216. Philip of Macedon, after finishing his war with the Aetolians, and subsequently settling the affairs of Greece, entered upon a design of forming an offensive and defensive alliance with Carthage. Then I shall tell how Antiochus and Ptolemy Philopator3. Syrian war, B. C. 218. first quarrelled and finally went to war with each other for the possession of Coele-Syria. Next how the Rhodians and Prusias went to war with the4. Byzantine war. B. C. 220. Byzantines, and compelled them to desist from exacting dues from ships sailing into the Pontus. At this point I shall pause in my narrative to introduce aFirst digression on the Roman Constitution. disquisition upon the Roman Constitution, in which I shall show that its peculiar character contributed largely to their su
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Hannibal's Preparations (search)
ined for sacrificial purposes, like the a)/rxwn basileu/s, and the rex sacrificulus. Polybius, like other Greek writers, calls them basilei=s. Infra, 42. Herod. 7, 165. Aristot. Pol. 2, 8. bade him bring out whichever of the two he chose: and upon the Roman saying that it should be war, a majority of the senators cried out in answer that they accepted it. It was on these terms that the Senate and the Roman ambassadors parted. Meanwhile Hannibal, upon going into winter quarters atWinter of 219-218 B. C. Hannibal's arrangements for the coming campaign. New Carthage, first of all dismissed the Iberians to their various cities, with the view of their being prepared and vigorous for the next campaign. Secondly, he instructed his brother Hasdrubal in the management of his government in Iberia, and of the preparations to be made against Rome, in case he himself should be separated from him. Thirdly, he took precautions for the security of Libya, by selecting with prudent skill certain soldie
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Hannibal Crosses the Pyrenees (search)
Hannibal Crosses the Pyrenees These measures satisfactorily accomplished while he was B.C. 218. Hannibal breaks up his winter quarters and starts for Italy. in winter quarters, and the security of Libya and Iberia being sufficiently provided for; when the appointed day arrived, Hannibal got his army in motion, which consisted of ninety thousand infantry and about twelve thousand cavalry. After crossing the Iber, he set about subduing the tribes of the Ilurgetes and Bargusii, as well as the Aerenosii and Andosini, as far as the Pyrenees. When he had reduced all this country under his power, and taken certain towns by storm, which he did with unexpected rapidity, though not without severe fighting and serious loss; he left Hanno in chief command of all the district north of the Iber, and with absolute authority over the Burgusii, who were the people that gave him most uneasiness on account of their friendly feeling towards Rome. He then detached from his army ten thousand foot and a th
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Preparations for Battle (search)
Preparations for Battle As soon as Tiberius saw the Numidian horse approaching, he immediately sent out his cavalry by itself Battle of the Trebia, December B.C. 218. with orders to engage the enemy, and keep them in play, while he despatched after them six thousand foot armed with javelins, and got the rest of the army in motion, with the idea that their appearance would decide the affair: for his superiority in numbers, and his success in the cavalry skirmish of the day before, had filled him with confidence. But it was now mid-winter and the day was snowy and excessively cold, and men and horses were marching out almost entirely without having tasted food; and accordingly, though the troops were at first in high spirits, yet when they had crossed the Trebia, swollen by the floods which the rain of the previous night had brought down from the high ground above the camp, wading breast deep through the stream, they were in a wretched state from the cold and want of food as the day w
Polybius, Histories, book 4, Euripidas Intends to Attack Sicyon (search)
Euripidas Intends to Attack Sicyon Meanwhile Euripidas, with two companies of Eleans,— B. C. 218, Jan.-Feb. Destruction of a marauding army of Eleans under Euripidas. who combined with the pirates and mercenaries made up an army of two thousand two hundred men, besides a hundred horse,—started from Psophis and began marching by way of Pheneus and Stymphalus, knowing nothing about Philip's arrival, with the purpose of wasting the territory of Sicyon. The very night in which it chanced that Philip had pitched his camp near the temple of the Dioscuri, he passed the royal quarters, and succeeded in entering the territory of Sicyon, about the time of the morning watch. But some Cretans of Philip's army who had left their ranks, and were prowling about on the track of prey, fell into the hands of Euripidas, and being questioned by him informed him of the arrival of the Macedonians. Without saying a word of his discovery to any one, he at once caused his army to face about, and marched back
Polybius, Histories, book 4, Phillidas and the Aetolian Troops Arrive (search)
nues his campaign. Philip came first to Telphusa, and thence to Heraea. There he had the booty sold by auction, and repaired the bridge over the Alpheus, with the view of passing over it to the invasion of Triphylia. Just at that time the Aetolian Strategus, Dorimachus, in answer to a request of the Eleans for protection against the devastation they were enduring, despatched six hundred Aetolians, under the command of Phillidas, to their aid. Arrival of Aetolian troops under Phillidas, B. C. 218. Having arrived in Elis, and taken over the Elean mercenaries, who were five hundred in number, as well as a thousand citizen soldiers and the Tarentine cavalry,The local name of Tarentine, though doubtless originating in fact, had come to indicate a species of mercenary cavalry armed in a particular way. Arrian, Tact. 4 distinguishes two sorts of light cavalry for skirmishing, Tarentines armed with javelins (dorati/a), and horse archers (i(ppotoco/tai). Cp. 11, 12, Livy 35, 29; 37, 40. he ma
Polybius, Histories, book 4, Chilon's Fruitless Attempts In Sparta (search)
Chilon's Fruitless Attempts In Sparta While Philip was thus engaged in Triphylia, Chilon Chilon tries to seize the crown of Sparta, B. C. 218. the Lacedaemonian, holding that the kingship belonged to him in virtue of birth, and annoyed at the neglect of his claims by the Ephors in selecting Lycurgus, determined to stir up a revolution: and believing that if he took the same course as Cleomenes had done, and gave the common people hopes of land allotments and redivision of property, the masses would quickly follow him, he addressed himself to carrying out this policy. Having therefore agreed with his friends on this subject, and got as many as two hundred people to join his conspiracy, he entered upon the execution of his project. But perceiving that the chief obstacles in the way of the accomplishment of his design were Lycurgus, and those Ephors who had invested him with the crown, he directed his first efforts against them. The Ephors he seized while at dinner, and put them all to
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