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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 25 25 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 5 5 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 4 4 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography 1 1 Browse Search
M. Annaeus Lucanus, Pharsalia (ed. Sir Edward Ridley) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 38-39 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Diodorus Siculus, Library, Fragments of Book 9, Chapter 10 (search)
treaty of friendship and alliance.This would probably refer to the Peace of Callias in 448 (or earlier), but in it there was no question of an alliance. However, in 412 Sparta made a treaty with Persia against Athens. Chilon's precepts, though brief, embrace the entire counsel necessary for the best life, since these pithy sayings of his are worth more than all the votive offerings set up in Delphi. The golden ingots of CroesusSee Hdt. 1.50. and other handiwork like them have vanished and were but great incentives to men who chose to lift impious hands against the temple; but Chilon's maxims are kept alive for all time, stored up as they are in the souls of educated men and constituting the fairest treasure, on which neither Phocians nor Gauls would be quick to lay their hands.The reference is to the sack of Delphi by the Phocians in 356-346 B.C. and by the Gauls in 279 B.C.Const. Exc. 4, pp. 283-285.
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Attica, chapter 3 (search)
s by Euphranor, and he also wrought the Apollo surnamed Patrous (Paternal) in the temple hard by. And in front of the temple is one Apollo made by Leochares; the other Apollo, called Averter of evil, was made by Calamis. They say that the god received this name because by an oracle from Delphi he stayed the pestilence which afflicted the Athenians at the time of the Peloponnesian War.430 B.C. Here is built also a sanctuary of the Mother of the gods; the image is by Pheidias490-432 B.C.. Hard by is the council chamber of those called the Five Hundred, who are the Athenian councillors for a year. In it are a wooden figure of Zeus Counsellor and an Apollo, the work of Peisias,The dates of these artists are unknown. and a Demos by Lyson. The thesmothetae (lawgivers) were painted by ProtogenesA contemporary of Alexander the Great. the Caunian, and OlbiadesAn unknown painter. portrayed Callippus, who led the Athenians to Thermopylae to stop the incursion of the Gauls into Greece.279 B.C.
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Achaia, chapter 6 (search)
Boeotia. The local guide at Patrae used to say that the wrestler Chilon was the only Achaean who took part in the action at Lamia. I myself know that Adrastus, a Lydian, helped the Greeks as a private individual, although the Lydian commonwealth held aloof. A likeness of this Adrastus in bronze was dedicated in front of the sanctuary of Persian Artemis by the Lydians, who wrote an inscription to the effect that Adrastus died fighting for the Greeks against Leonnatus. The march to Thermopylae279 B.C. against the army of the Gauls was left alone by all the Peloponnesians alike; for, as the barbarians had no ships, the Peloponnesians anticipated no danger from the Gauls, if only they walled off the Corinthian Isthmus from the sea at Lechaeum to the other sea at Cenchreae. This was the policy of all the Peloponnesians at this time. But when the Gauls had somehow crossed in ships to Asia278 B.C., the condition of the Greeks was as follows. No Greek state was preeminent in strength. For the
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Achaia, chapter 15 (search)
ue. Then, when Critolaus was informed by his scouts that the Romans under Metellus had crossed the Spercheius, he fled to Scarpheia in Locris, without daring even to draw up the Achaeans in the pass between Heracleia and Thermopylae, and to await Metellus there. To such a depth of terror did he sink that brighter hopes were not suggested even by the spot itself, the site of the Lacedaemonian effort to save Greece480 B.C., and of the no less glorious exploit of the Athenians against the Gauls279 B.C.. Critolaus and the Achaeans took to flight, but at a short distance from Scarpheia they were overtaken by the men of Metellus, who killed many and took about a thousand prisoners. Critolaus was neither seen alive after the battle nor found among the dead. If he dared to plunge into the marsh of the sea at the foot of Mount Oeta he must inevitably have sunk into the depths without leaving a trace to tell the tale. So the end of Critolaus offers a wide field for conjecture. A thousand picked
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Phocis and Ozolian Locri, chapter 20 (search)
and Paus. 1.4.2. and their forces consisted of all their seaworthy triremes, five hundred horse and one thousand foot. Because of their ancient reputation the Athenians held the chief command. The king of Macedonia sent five hundred mercenaries, and the king of Asia a like number; the leader of those sent by Antigonus was Aristodemus, a Macedonian, and Telesarchus, one of the Syrians on the Orontes, commanded the forces that Antiochus sent from Asia. When the Greeks assembled at Thermopylae279 B.C learned that the army of the Gauls was already in the neighborhood of Magnesia and Phthiotis, they resolved to detach the cavalry and a thousand light armed troops and to send them to the Spercheius, so that even the crossing of the river could not be effected by the barbarians without a struggle and risks. On their arrival these forces broke down the bridges and by themselves encamped along the bank. But Brennus himself was not utterly stupid, nor inexperienced, for a barbarian, in devisin
Strabo, Geography, Book 10, chapter 2 (search)
ich Homer mentions in the Aetolian catalogue, was in Aetolia, though only traces of it are left, near Pleuron at the foot of Aracynthus. Near it, also, was Lysimachia; this, too, has disappeared; it was situated by the lake now called Lysimachia, in earlier times Hydra, between Pleuron and the city Arsinoe. In earlier times Arsinoe was only a village, and was called Conopa, but it was first founded as a city by Arsinoe, who was both wife and sister of Ptolemy the Second;She married him in 279 B.C. it was rather happily situated at the ford across the Acheloüs. PyleneCf. 10. 2. 6. has also suffered a fate similar to that of Olenus. When the poet calls Calydon both "steep"Hom. Il. 13.217 and "rocky,"Hom. Il. 2.640. one should interpret him as referring to the country; for, as I have said,10. 2. 3. they divided the country into two parts and assigned the mountainous part, or Epictetus,i.e., Aetolia the "Acquired" (10. 2. 3). to Calydon and the level country to Pleuron. At the pre
Polybius, Histories, book 2, Character of the Gauls (search)
Character of the Gauls Such was the end of the Celtic war: which, for the B.C. 480. B.C. 279. desperate determination and boldness of the enemy, for the obstinacy of the battles fought, and for the number of those who fell and of those who were engaged, is second to none recorded in history, but which, regarded as a specimen of scientific strategy, is utterly contemptible. The Gauls showed no power of planning or carrying out a campaign, and in everything they did were swayed by impulse rather than by sober calculation. As I have seen these tribes, after a short struggle, entirely ejected from the valley of the Padus, with the exception of some few localities lying close to the Alps, I thought I ought not to let their original attack upon Italy pass unrecorded, any more than their subsequent attempts, or their final ejectment: for it is the function of the historian to record and transmit to posterity such episodes in the drama of Fortune; that our posterity may not from ignorance of
Polybius, Histories, book 3, The Third Treaty (search)
The Third Treaty A third treaty again was made by Rome at the time of Third treaty, B.C. 279. the invasion of Pyrrhus into Sicily; before the Carthaginians undertook the war for the possession of Sicily. This treaty contains the same provisions as the two earlier treaties with these additional clauses:— "If they make a treaty of alliance with Pyrrhus, the Romans or Carthaginians shall make it on such terms as not to preclude the one giving aid to the other, if that one's territory is attacked. "If one or the other stand in need of help, the Carthaginians shall supply the ships, whether for transport or war; but each people shall supply the pay for its own men employed on them. The Carthaginians shall also give aid by sea to the Romans if need be; but no one shall compel the crews to disembark against their will." Provision was also made for swearing to these treaties. In the case of the first, the Carthaginians were to swear by the gods of their ancestors, the Romans by Jupiter Lapi
Polybius, Histories, book 4, Byzantium, The Gauls, And Rhodians (search)
Byzantium, The Gauls, And Rhodians These Gauls had left their country with Brennus, and The Gauls, B. C. 279. having survived the battle at Delphi and made their way to the Hellespont, instead of crossing to Asia, were captivated by the beauty of the district round Byzantium, and settled there. Then, having conquered the Thracians and erected TyleOr Tylis, according to Stephanos Byz., who says it was near the Haemus. Perhaps the modern Kilios. into a capital, they placed the Byzantines in extreme danger. In their earlier attacks, made under the command of Comontorius their first king, the Byzantines always bought them off by presents amounting to three, or five, or sometimes even ten thousand gold pieces, on condition of their not devastating their territory: and at last were compelled to agree to pay them a yearly tribute of eighty talents, until the time of Cavarus, in whose reign their kingdom came to an end; and their whole tribe, being in their turn conquered by the Thracians,
Polybius, Histories, book 9, Speech of Chlaeneas (search)
tood Antipater in behalf of those unjustly defrauded of safety to their lives: they alone faced the invasion of Brennus and his barbarian army: and they alone came to your aid when called upon, with a determination to assist you in regaining your ancestral supremacy in Greece.The paragraph "For the Aetolians. . . in Greece," follows "the Messenians" in ch. 30, in the Greek texts. But it is evidently out of place there, and falls naturally into this position. Defeat of Brennus at Delphi, B. C. 279. Pausan. 10, 15; 20-23. Who again is ignorant of the deeds of Cassander, Demetrius, and Antigonus Gonatas? For owing to their recency the knowledge of them still remains distinct. Some of them by introducing garrisons, and others by implanting despots in the cities, effectually secured that every state should share the infamous brand of slavery. But passing by all these I will now come to the last Antigonus,Antigonus Doson. lest any of you, viewing his policy unsuspiciously, should consider t
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