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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 12 12 Browse Search
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was taken prisoner. (Diod. Exc. xxi. p. 559, ed. Wess.; Paus. 1.9.7; Strab. vii. pp. 302, 305; Plut. Demetr. c. 39, de ser. num. vind. p. 555d.) In B. C. 287, Agathocles was sent by his father against Demetrius Poliorcetes, who had marched into Asia to deprive Lysimachus of Lydia and Caria. In this expedition he was successful; he defeated Lysimachus and drove him out of his father's provinces. (Plut. Demetr. c. 46.) Agathocles was destined to be the successor of Lysimachus, and was popular along his subjects; but his step-mother, Arsinoe, prejudiced the mind of his father against him; and after an unsuccessful attempt to poison him, Lysimachus cast him into prison, where he was murdered (B. C. 284) by Ptolemaeus Ceraunus, who was a fugitive at the court of Lysimachus. His widow Lysandra fled with his children, and Alexander, his brother, to Seleucus in Asia, who made war upon Lysimachus in consequence. (Memnon, apud Phot. Cod. 124, pp. 225, 226, ed. Bekker; Paus. 1.10; Justin, 17.1.)
Alexander (*)Ale/candros), the son of LYSIMACHUS by an Odrysian woman, whom Polyaenus (6.12) calls Macris. On the murder of his brother Agathocles [see p. 65a] by command of his father in B. C. 284, he fled into Asia with the widow of his brother, and solicited aid of Seleucus. A war ensued in consequence between Seleucus and Lysimachus, which terminated in the defeat and death of the latter, who was slain in battle in B. C. 281, in the plain of Coros in Phrygia. His body was conveyed by his son Alexander to the Chersonesus, and there buried between Cardia and Pactya, where his tomb was remaining in the time of Pausanias. (1.10.4, 5; Appian, App. Syr. 64
the former in B. C. 288 [AMASTRIS], Arsinoe received from Lysimachus the cities of Heracleia, Amastris, and Dium, as a present. (Plut. Demtr. 31; Paus. 1.10.3; Menmon, apud Phot. p. 225a. 30, ed. Bekker.) Arsinoe, who was anxious to secure the succession to the throne for her own children, was jealous of her step-son Agathocles, who was married to her half-sister Lysandra, the daughter of Ptolemy I. and Eurydice. Through the intrigues of Arsinoe, Agathocles was eventually put to death in B. C. 284. [AGATHOCLES, p. 65a.] This crime, however, led to the death of Lysimachus; for Lysandra fled with her children to Seleucus in Asia, who was glad of the pretext to march against Lysimachus. In the war which followed, Lysimachus lost his life (B. C. 281) ; and after the death of her husband, Arsinoe first fled to Ephesus, to which Lysimachus had given the name of Arsinoe in honour of her (Steph. Byz. s. v. *)/Efesos), and from thence (Polyaen. 8.57) to Cassandreia in Macedonia, where she sh
probably of the well-known similar works of Praxiteles. But Tatian in that chapter does not speak of courtezans, but of poets and poetesses, whose endeavors were f no use to mankind; it is only in 100.53 that lie speaks of dissipated men and women, and in 100.55 of all these idle people together. In fact the two ladies whom Cephisodotus is there stated to have represented, are very well known to us as poetesses, --Myro or Moero of Byzantium, mother of the tragic poet Homer (who flourished B. C. 284; see Suidas, s. v. *(/Omhros), and Anyte. [ANYTE.] All the works of Cephisodotus are lost. One only, but one of the noblest, the Symplegma, praised by Pliny (36.4.6) and visible at his time at Pergamus, is considered by many antiquarians as still in existence in an imitation only, but a very good one, the celebrated group of two wrestling youths at Florence. (Gall. di Firenze Statue, iii. tavv. 121, 122.) Winckelmann seems to have changed his mind about its meaning, for in one place (Ges
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Denter, Caeci'lius 1. L. Caecilius Denter, was consul in B. C. 284, and praetor the year after. In this capacity he fell in the war against the Senones and was succeeded by M'. Curius Dentatus. (Liv. Epit. 12; Oros. 3.22 ; Plb. 2.19; Fast. Sicul.) Fischer in his Römisch. Zeittafeln makes him praetor and die in B. C. 285, and in the year following he has him again as consul. Drumann (Gesch. Roms, ii. p. 18) denies the identity of the consul and the praetor, on the ground that it was not customary for a person to hoid the praetorship the year after his consulship; but examples of such a mode of proceeding do occur (Liv. 10.22, 22.35), and Drumann's objection thus falls to the ground
Heron (*(/Hrwn). 1. Of Alexandria, is called by Heron the younger (de Mach. Bell. 100.23, Fabr.) a pupil of Ctesibius, and he lived in the reigns of the Ptolemies Philadelphus and Euergetes (B. C. 284-221.) Of his life nothing is known; on his mechanical inventions we have but some scanty parts of his own writings, and some scattered notices. The common pneumatic experiment, called Hero's fountain, in which a jet of water is maintained by condensed air, has given a certain popular celebrity to his name. This has been increased by the discovery in his writings of a steam engine, that is, of an engine in which motion is produced by steam, and which must always be a part of the history of that agent. This engine acts precisely on the principle of what is called Barker's Mill : a boiler with arms having lateral orifices is capable of revolving round a vertical axis; the steam issues from the lateral orifices, and the uncompensated pressure upon the parts opposite to the orifices turns
Philiscus 4. Of Corcyra, a distinguished tragic poet, and one of the seven who formed the Tragic Pleiad, was also a priest of Dionysus, and in that character he was present at the coronation procession of Ptolemy Philadelphus in B. C. 284. (Ath. v. p. 198c.) Pliny (Plin. Nat. 35.10. s. 36.20) states that his portrait was painted in the attitude of meditation by Protogenes, who is known to have been still alive ill B. C. 304. It seems, therefore, that the time of Philiscus must be extended to an earlier period than that assigned to him by Suidas, who merely says that he lived under Ptolemy Philadelphus. He wrote 42 dramas, of which we know nothing, except that the Themistocles, which is enumerated among the plays of Philiscus the comic poet, ought probably to be ascribed to him : such subjects are known to have been chosen by the tragedians, as in the Marathonians of Lycophron. The choriambic hexameter verse was named after Philiscus, on account of his frequent use of it (Hephaest. p.
, in that of Alexander; and died in the 121st or 124th Olympiad (adopting Clinton's correction rka/ and rkd, for ric/ and rid,); while others stated that he flourished at one or the other of those dates. (Suid. s. v.) Clinton proposes to reduce these statements into a consistent form in the following manner : Sosiphanes was born in the reign of Philip, or in that of Alexander, between B. C. 340 and B. C. 330, and exhibited tragedy in the times of the Pleiad, Ol. 121 (B. C. 296) or Ol. 124 (B. C. 284). He is placed among the poets of the Pleiad by a scholiast on Hephaestion (p. 185), as well as by Suidas; but, in the other three lists, the name of Aeantides appears instead of Sosiphanes. If the latter really belonged to the Tragic Pleiad, he must have been the oldest of the seven poets in it. Of the seventy-three plays of Sosiphanes, the only remains are one title, *Mele/agros, and a very few lines from it and other plays. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 318, 322; Clinton, F. H. v
Sosi'theus (*Swsi/qeos), of Syracuse or Athens, or rather, according to Suidas, of Alexandreia in the Troad, was a distinguished tragic poet, one of the Tragic Pleiad, and the antagonist of the tragic poet Homer : he flourished about Ol. 124 (B. C. 284); and wrote both in poetry and in prose. (Suid. s. v. He is also mentioned among the poets of the Pleiad in all the lists except that of Tzetzes. The remains of his works consist of two lines from his *)/Aqlios (Stob. Serm. 51.23), and a considerable fragment of twenty-four lines from his *Da/fnis or *Litue/rsas, which appears to have been a drama pastoral in its scene, and in its form and character very similar to the old satyric dramas of the Attic tragedians. (Schol. apud Casaub. ad Theocr. 100.12; comp. Ath. x. p. 415b; Tzetz. Chil. 2.595; Schol. ad Theocr. 10.41.) By some of the above authorities the name Sosibius is wrongly given instead of Sositheus. Another error, into which some writers have been led by the character of th
dyl, namely, that he was contemporary with Aratus and Callimachus and Nicander, and that he flourished in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus ; and also the important statement, in the argument to the fourth Idyl, that he flourished about Ol. 124, B. C. 284-280. (There can be little doubt the rkd ' is the true reading.) The writer of the argument to the 17th Idyl mentions the statement of Munatus, that Theocritus flourished under Ptolemy Philopator, but only in order to refute it. In interpretinfer to personal intercourse and instruction, or only to the influence of the works of Philetas upon the mind of Theocritus. Without attempting to decide these questions, we would hazard the conjecture, that the date above mentioned, of Ol. 124. B. C. 284-280, marks the period, either when Theocritus first went to Alexandria, or when, after spending some time there in receiving the instruction, or studying the works, of Philetas and Asclepiades, he began to distinguish himself as a poet; that hi
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