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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 17 17 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 8-10 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 2 2 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 40-42 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. and Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 10 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.), chapter 5 (search)
hemselves, or to climb over somewhere and escape. it chanced that in a certain place the mound had not been solidly rammed down, and this, overburdened with the weight of those who stood upon it, slid over into the trench. by that opening —crying out that the gods were providing them a means of flight —they saved themselves, but more got away without their arms than with them. in this battle the might of the Etruscans was broken for the second time.The other occasion was in 309 B.C. (IX. xxxix. 11). by promising a year's pay for the soldiers, with two months' corn, they obtained permission from the dictator to send envoys to Rome to negotiate a peace. Peace was denied them, but they were granted a truce of two years. The dictator returned to Rome and triumphed. —I find historians who say that Etruria was pacified by the dictator without any memorable battle, only by settling the dissensions of the Arretini and reconciling the Cilnian family with the plebs. —Marc
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 10 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.), chapter 38 (search)
The following year brought with it aB.C. 293 consul, Lucius Papirius Cursor, remarkable both for his father's glory and for his own, and a mighty war, with a victory such as no one, save Lucius Papirius, the consul's father, had until that day obtained over the Samnites. and it happened that the enemy had made their preparations for the war with the sameThe same, that is, as in the year 309 B.C., when they had fought against the Romans, who were commanded by the elder Papirius (ix. xl. 2 ff.). earnestness and pomp and all the magnificence of splendid arms, and had likewise invoked the assistance of the gods, initiating, as it were, their soldiers, in accordance with a certain antique form of oath. but first they held a levy throughout Samnium under this new ordinance, that whosoever of military age did not report in response to the proclamation of the generals, or departed without their orders, should forfeit his life to Jupiter. which done, they appointed all t
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 42 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. and Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D.), chapter 31 (search)
diers up to fifty years of age. In connection with the tribunes of the soldiers, an innovation was made that year because of the Macedonian war, a change brought before the commons by the consuls in accordance with a resolution of the senate, namely, that tribunes of the soldiers should not be chosen by vote for this year but that the consuls and praetors should exercise their judgment and choice in appointing them.The election of tribunes of the soldiers had been the rule since 309 B.C. (supra IX. xxx. 3). Later half were elected, half appointed (XLIII. xii. 7 and XLIV. xxi. 2-3). Commands were divided among the praetors as follows: it was decided that the praetor whose lot it was to go where the senate determined should go to the fleet at Brundisium and there inspect the sailors; after discharging any who were unfit, he was to enroll replacements from among freedmen, and see to it that two-thirds should be Roman citizens and one-third allies. It was voted to i
Acro'tatus (*)Akro/tatos). 1. The son of Cleomenes II. king of Sparta, incurred the displeasure of a large party at Sparta by opposing the decree, which was to release from infamy all who had fled from the battle, in which Antipater defeated Agis, B. C. 331. He was thus glad to accept the offer of the Agrigentines, when they sent to Sparta for assistance in B. C. 314 against Agathocles of Syracuse. He first sailed to Italy, and obtained assistance from Tarentum; but on his arrival at Agrigentum he acted with such cruelty and tyranny that the inhabitants rose against him, and compelled him to leave the city. He returned to Sparta, and died before the death of his father, which was in B. C. 309. He left a son, Areus, who succeeded Cleomenes. (Diod. 15.70, 71; Paus. 1.13.3, 3.6.1, 2; Plut. Agis 3
A'lcimus (*)/Alkimos), a Greek rhetorician whom Diogenes Laertius (2.114) calls the most distinguished of all Greek rhetoricians, flourished about B. C. 309. Works It is not certain whether he is the same as the Alcimus to whom Diogenes in another passage (3.9) ascribes a work pro\s *)Amu/ntan. Athenaeus in several places speaks of a Sicilian Alcimus, who appears to have been the author of a great historical work, parts of which are referred to under the names of *)Italika\ and *Sikelika/. Confusion with the rhetorician Alcimus But whether he was the same as the rhetorician Alcimus, cannot be determined. (Athen. 10.44], xii. p. 518, vii. p. 322.) [L.
A'reus I. 1. (*)Areu/s), succeeded his grandfather, Cleomenes II., as king of Sparta, of the Eurysthenid family, B. C. 309, his father, ACROTATUS, having died before him. He reigned 44 years. (Diod. 20.29.) In the year 280 B. C., a league of the Greek states was formed, at the instigation of Sparta, acting under the influence of its ally, Ptolemy Ceraunus, to free themselves from the dominion of Antigonus Gonatas. The first blow was struck by Areus, who, having obtained a decree of the Amphyctions against the Aetolians, because they had cultivated the sacred land of Cirrha, attacked Cirrha unexpectedly, and plundered and burnt the town. His proceedings were viewed by the Aetolian shepherds on the mountains, who formed themselves into a body of about 500 men, and attacked the scattered troops of Areus. These, ignorant of the number of their enemies, were struck with a panic and fled, leaving 9000 of their number dead. Thus the expedition turned out fruitless, and the attempts of Spa
r's invasion of Asia, she and her children were sent by Memnon to Dareius III. as hostages for his fidelity; and in the ensuing year, when Damascus was betrayed to the Macedonians, she fell into the hands of Alexander, by whom she became the mother of a son named Hercules. On Alexander's death, B. C. 323, a claim to the throne on this boy's behalf was unsuccessfully urged by Nearchus. From a comparison of the accounts of Diodorus and Justin, it appears that he was brought up at Pergamus under his mother's care, and that she shared his fate when (B. C. 309) Polysperchon was induced by Cassander to murder him. (Plut. Alex. 21, Eum. 1; Diod. 17.23, 20.20, 28; Curt. 3.13.14, 10.6.10; Just. 11.10, 13.2, 15.2; Paus. 9.7.) Plutarch (Eum. l.c.) mentions a sister * Perhaps a half-sister, a daughter of Artabazus by the sister of Memnon and Mentor. of hers, of the same name, whom Alexander gave in marriage to Eumenes at the grand nuptials at Susa in B. C. 324; but see Arrian, Anab. vii. p. 148e.
perchon, who once more appears in opposition to Cassander, advanced against him with Hercules, the son of Alexander the Great and Barsine, whom, acting probably under instructions from Antigonus, he had put forward as a claimant to the crown; but, being a man apparently with all the unscrupulous cruelty of Cassander without his talent and decision, he was bribed by the latter, who promised him among other things the government of the Peloponnesus, to murder the young prince and his mother, B. C. 309. [BARSINE, No. 1.] At this time the only places held by Cassander in Greece were Athens, Corinth, and Sicyon, the two latter of which were betrayed to Ptolemy by Cratesipolis, in B. C. 308; and in 307, Athens was recovered by Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, from Demetrius the Phalerean, who had held it for Cassander from B. C. 313, with the specious title of " Guardian" (e)pimelhth/s). In B. C. 306, when Antigonus, Lysimachus, and Ptolemy took the name of king, Cassander was saluted with
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Cleo'menes Ii. the 25th king of Sparta of the Agid line, was the son of Cleombrotus I. and the brother of Agesipolis II., whom he succeeded in B. C. 370. He died in B. C. 309, after a reign of sixty years and ten months; but during this long period we have no information about him of any importance. He had two sons, Acrotatus and Cleonymus. Acrotatus died during the life of Cleomenes, upon whose death Areus, the son of Acrotatus, succeeded to the throne. [AREUS I; CLEONYMUS.] (Diod. 20.29; Plut. Agis 3; Paus. 1.13.3, 3.6.1; Manso, Sparta, 3.1, p. 164, 2. pp. 247, 248: Diod. 15.60, contradicts himself about the time that Cleomenes reigned, and is evidently wrong; see Clinton, Fast. ii. pp. 213, 214.) [P.S]
Cleo'nymus 3. The younger son of Cleomenes II., king of Sparta, and uncle of Areus I., was excluded from the throne on his father's death, B. C. 309, in consequence of the general dislike inspired by his violent and tyrannical temper. In B. C. 303, the Tarentines, being at war with the Romans and Lucanians, asked aid of Sparta, and requested that the command of the required succours might be given to Cleonymus. The request was granted, and Cleonymus crossed over to Italy with a considerable force, the mere display of which is said to have frightened the Lucanians into peace. Diodorus, who mentions this, says nothing of the effect of the Spartan expedition on the Romans, though it is pretty certain that they also concluded a treaty at this time with the Tarentines. (See Arnold, Hist. of Rome, vol. ii. p. 315.) According to some of the Roman annalists, Cleonymus was defeated and driven back to his ships by the consul, M. Aemilius; while others of them related that, Junius Bubulcus the
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