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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 28 28 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography 4 4 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 2 2 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 2 2 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 2 2 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 1 1 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 1 1 Browse Search
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Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XVII, Chapter 2 (search)
335/4 B.C.When Evaenetus was archon at Athens, the Romans elected as consuls Lucius Furius and Gaius Manius.Evaenetus was archon from July 335 to June 334 B.C. Broughton (1.138) gives the consuls of 338 B.C. as L. Furius Camillus and C. Maenius. In this year Alexander, succeeding to the throne, first inflicted due punishment on his father's murderers,Diodorus has not previously suggested that any others knew of the plans of Pausanias, who was killed immediately and so could not reveal any accomplices (Book 16.94.4). Alexander himself was the principal beneficiary of the murder, and he has been suspected of complicity, especially because, as only half of Macedonian blood, he was not universally popular. At all events, the known victims of this purge were Alexander's own rivals: his older cousin Amyntas, son of King Perdiccas III; the family of Alexander of Lyncestis, although he himself was spared; and Philip's wife Cleopa
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XVII, Chapter 49 (search)
331/0 B.C.In the archonship of Aristophanes at Athens, the consuls at Rome were Spurius Postumius and Titus Veturius.Aristophanes was archon at Athens from July 331 to June 330 B.C. The Roman consuls of 334 B.C. were Sp. Postumius Albinus and T. Veturius Calvinus (Broughton, 1, p. 140). In this year King Alexander set in order the affairs of Gaza and sent off Amyntas with ten ships to Macedonia,This was Amyntas the son of Andromenes (chap. 45.7). Curtius 4.6.30 mentions the same incident. His brother Simmias took over his battalion of the phalanx in his absence. He rejoined Alexander in 331 (chap. 65.1; cp. Arrian. 3.16.10). with orders to enlist the young men who were fit for military service. He himself with all his army marched on to Egypt and secured the adhesion of all its cities without striking a blow. For since the Persians had committed impieties against the temples and had governed harshly, the Egyptians welcomed th
Strabo, Geography, Book 9, chapter 2 (search)
nty stadia; and over it is a bridge two plethra long,In 411 B.C. Chalcis was joined to the mainland by a bridge. Moles were thrown out into the Euripus from each shore, high towers were built at the ends of the two moles, leaving a passage through for a single ship, and "wooden bridges were set over the channels" (Diod. Sic. 13.47). The plurals "bridges" and "channels" may be explained by the fact that there was a small rocky island in the middle of the strait between the two channels. In 334 B.C. they fortified the bridge with towers and gates and a wall, and included the Boeotian Mt. Canethus (Karababa?) as a bridgehead within the circuit of the city of Chalchis (Strabo 10. 1. 8). Chalcis was still joined to the continent by a bridge in 200 B.C. (Livy 28.6), and Aemilius Paulus went to see it about 167 B.C. (Livy 45.27). And there was still a bridge there in the time of Livy himself, although the tower mentioned by him (28. 6) was no longer there (note the tense of claudebat).
Strabo, Geography, Book 10, chapter 1 (search)
ies that were subject to Olynthus, which later were treated outrageously by Philip. And many places in Italy and Sicily are also Chalcidian. These colonies were sent out, as AristotleSee note on Aristotle, 10. 1. 3. states, when the government of the Hippobatae,"Knights." as it is called, was in power; for at the head of it were men chosen according to the value of their property, who ruled in an aristocratic manner. At the time of Alexander's passage across,Across the Hellespont to Asia, 334 B.C. the Chalcidians enlarged the circuit of the walls of their city, taking inside them both Canethus and the Euripus, and fortifying the bridge with towers and gates and a wall.Cf. 9. 2. 8 and footnotes. Above the city of the Chalcidians is situated the Lelantine Plain. In this plain are fountains of hot water suited to the cure of diseases, which were used by Cornelius Sulla, the Roman commander. And in this plain was also a remarkable mine which contained copper and iron together, a thi
Strabo, Geography, Book 12, chapter 4 (search)
Ascanian Lake, which is surrounded by a plain that is large and very fertile but not at all healthful in summer. Nicaea was first founded by AntigonusKing of Asia; defeated by Lysimachus at the battle of Ipsus in Phrygia (301 B.C.), and fell in that battle in his 81st year (Diod. Sic. 20.46-86). the son of Philip, who called it Antigonia, and then by Lysimachus, who changed its name to that of Nicaea his wife. She was the daughter of Antipater.Appointed regent of Macedonia by Alexander in 334 B.C. The city is sixteen stadia in circuit and is quadrangular in shape; it is situated in a plain, and has four gates; and its streets are cut at right angles, so that the four gates can be seen from one stone which is set up in the middle of the gymnasium. Slightly above the Ascanian Lake is the town Otroea, situated just on the borders of Bithynia towards the east. It is surmised that Otroea was so named after Otreus. That Bithynia was a settlement of the Mysians will first be testifi
Strabo, Geography, Book 13, chapter 1 (search)
take for granted, then, that such removals into the parts lower down, which took place in those times, indicate different stages in modes of life and civilization; but this must be further investigated at another time. It is said that the city of the present Ilians was for a time a mere village, having its temple of Athena, a small and cheap temple, but that when Alexander went up there after his victory at the GranicusThe first of the three battles by which he overthrew the Persian empire (334 B.C.). River he adorned the temple with votive offerings, gave the village the title of city, and ordered those in charge to improve it with buildings, and that he adjudged it free and exempt from tribute; and that later, after the overthrow of the Persians, he sent down a kindly letter to the place, promising to make a great city of it, and to build a magnificent sanctuary, and to proclaim sacred games.e.g., like the Olympic Games. But his untimely death prevented the fulfillment of this p
Polybius, Histories, book 2, Early Conflicts between Gauls and Romans (search)
ns time to recover their strength, and to come to terms with the people of Latium. When, thirty years after the capture of the city, the Celts came again as far as Alba, the Romans were taken by surprise; and having had no intelligence of the intended invasion, nor time to collect the forces of the Socii, did not venture to give them battle. B. C. 360. But when another invasion in great force took place twelve years later, they did get previous intelligence of it; and, having mustered their allies, sallied forth to meet them with great spirit, being eager to engage them and fight a decisive battle. B. C. 348. But the Gauls were dismayed at their approach; and, being besides weakened by internal feuds, retreated homewards as soon as night fell, with all the appearance of a regular flight.B. C.334. After this alarm they kept quiet for thirteen years; at the end of which period, seeing that the power of the Romans was growing formidable, they made a peace and a definite treaty with them.
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Causes of the Second Punic War (search)
Causes of the Second Punic War Some historians of the Hannibalian war, when they wish The origin of the 2d Punic war; to point out to us the causes of this contest between Rome and Carthage, allege first the siege of Saguntum by the Carthaginians, and, secondly, their breach of treaty by crossing the river called by the natives the Iber. B. C. 334. But though I should call these the first actions in the war, I cannot admit them to be its causes. One might just as well say that the crossing of Alexander the Great into Asia was the cause of the Persian war, and the descent of Antiochus upon Demetrias the cause of his war with Rome. B. C. 192, In neither would it be a probable or ture statement. In the first case, this action of Alexander's could not be called the cause of a war, for which both he and his father Philip in his lifetime had made elaborate preparations: and in the second case, we know that the Aetolian league had done the same, with a view to a war with Rome, before Antioc
us, the Heptaporus, the Caresus, and the Rhodius, have left no vestiges of their existence. The GranicusNow known as the Koja-Chai; memorable as the scene of the three great victories by which Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian empire, B.C. 334. Here also a victory was gained by Lucullus over Mithridates, B.C. 78., taking a different route, flows into the PropontisOr Sea of Marmora.. The small city of Scamandria, however, still exists, and, at a distance of a mile and a half from its s. The village of Moussa is supposed to occupy its site. The army of Alexander mustered here after crossing the Hellespont.. There was also in former times a town of AchilleonAlexander the Great visited this place on his Asiatic expedition in B.C. 334, and placed chaplets on the tomb of Achilles., founded near the tomb of Achilles by the people of Mitylene, and afterwards rebuilt by the Athenians, close to the spot where his fleet had been stationed near Sigeum. There was also the town of ├ćanti
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, VIA LATINA (search)
rum Flaminia tegitur cinis atque Latina), which, like the via Appia, ran in a straight line for the first ii miles. Liv. ii. 39 uses it, in speaking of Coriolanus, only as a geographical description; for it was not in existence so early. Its history is unknown, but its straightness of line shows that it was not a primitive road but an artificial military highway; and it was probably constructed after the pass of Algidus had been secured in 389 B.C.; and it must have run at least as early as 334 B.C. as far as Cales (Liv. x. 36). It was joined at three different points by the via Labicana or by branches. Strabo v. 3. 9, p. 237, shows that the via Latina was in his time regarded as the principal road, and indeed he classes it with the Appia and Valeria as among the most famous; but in later times the easier line taken by the via Labicana may have commended it to travellers, though the Latina was kept up also (for a milestone of Maxentius, see PBS i. 278). The distance being identical, th
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