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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 37 37 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 3 3 Browse Search
Aristotle, Politics 2 2 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 336 BC or search for 336 BC in all documents.

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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Alexander Lyncestes or Alexander the Lyncestian (search)
the Lyncestian (*)Ale/candros), son of AEROTUS, a native of the Macedonian district called Lyncestis, whence he is usually called Alexander Lyncestes. Justin (11.1) makes the singular mistake of calling him a brother of Lyncestas, while in other passages (11.7, 12.14) he uses the correct expression. He was a contemporary of Philip of Macedonia and Alexander the Great. He had two brothers, Heromenes and Arrhabaeus ; all three were known to have been accomplices in the murder of Philip, in B. C. 336. Alexander the Great on his accession put to death all those who had taken part in the murder, and Alexander the Lyncestian was the only one that was pardoned, because he was the first who did homage to Alexander the Great as his king. (Arrian, Arr. Anab. 1.25; Curtius, 7.1; Justin, 11.2.) But king Alexander not only pardoned him, but even made him his friend and raised him to high honours. He was first entrusted with the command of an army in Thrace, and afterwards received the command of
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Alexander I. or Alexander of Epirus (search)
he mother of Alexander the Great. He came at an early age to the court of Philip of Macedonia, and after the Grecian fashion became the object of his attachment. Philip in requital made him king of Epirus, after dethroning his cousin Aeacides. When Olympias was repudiated by her husband, she went to her brother, and endeavoured to induce him to make war on Philip. Philip, however, declined the contest, and formed a second alliance with him by giving him his daughter Cleopatra in marriage. (B. C. 336.) At the wedding Philip was assassinated by Pausanias. In B. C. 332, Alexander, at the request of the Tarentines, crossed over into Italy, to aid them against the Lucanians and Bruttii. After a victory over the Samnites and Lucanians near Paestum he made a treaty with the Romans. Success still followed his arms. He took Heraclea and Consentia from the Lucanians, and Terina and Sipontum from the Bruttii. But in B. C. 326, through the treachery of some Lucanian exiles, he was compelled to en
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ll manly and athletic sports; in horsemanship he excelled all of his age; and in the art of war he had the advantage of his father's instruction. At the early age of sixteen, Alexander was entrusted with the government of Macedonia by his father, while he was obliged to leave his kingdom to march against Byzantium. He first distinguished himself, however, at the battle of Chaeroneia (B. C. 338), where the victory was mainly owing to his impetuosity and courage. On the murder of Philip (B. C. 336), just after he had made arrangements to march into Asia at the head of the confederate Greeks, Alexander ascended the throne of Macedon, and found himself surrounded by enemies on every side. Attalus, the uncle of Cleopatra, who had been sent into Asia by Parmenion with a considerable force, aspired to the throne; the Greeks, roused by Demosthenes, threw off the Macedonian supremacy ; and the barbarians in the north threatened his dominions. Nothing but the promptest energy could save him
Amyntas 3. Grandson of Amyntas II., was left an infant in nominal possession of the throne of Macedonia, when his father Perdiccas III. fell in battle agains the Illyrians, B. C. 360. (Diod. 16.2.) He was quietly excluded from the kingly power by his uncle Philip, B. C. 359, who had at first acted merely as regent (Just. 7.5), and who felt himself so safe in his usurpation, that he brought up Amyntas at his court, and gave him one of his daughters in marriage In the first year of the reign of Alexander the Great, B. C. 336, Amyntas was executed for a plot against the king's life. (Thirlw. Gr. Hist. vol. v. pp. 165, 166, 177, vol. vi. p. 99, and the authorities to which he refers ; Just. 12.6, and Freinsheim, ad Curt. 6.9, 17.)
Androcy'des (*)Androku/dhs), a Greek physician, who lived in the reign of Alexander the Great, B. C. 336-323. There is a story told of him by Pliny (Plin. Nat. 14.7), that he wrote a letter to that prince cautioning him against the immoderate use of wine, which he called "the blood of the earth." It is mentioned also by the same author (17.37.10), that he ordered his patients to eat a radish as a preservative against intoxication, from having observed (it is said) that the vine always turned away from a radish if growing near it. It is very possible that this Androcydes may be the same person who is mentioned by Theophrastus (Hist. Plant. 4.16 [al. 20] 20), and also by Athenaeus. (vi. p. 258b.) [W.A.
Anti'dotus an encaustic painter, the disciple of Euphranor, and teacher of Nicias the Athenian. His works were few, but carefully executed, and his colouring was somewhat harsh (severior). He flourished about B. C. 336. (Plin. Nat. 35.40. §§ 27, 28.) [P.
we may conclude, from comparing their tales, that Apelles, having been accidentally driven to Alexandria, overcame the dislike which Ptolemy bore to him, and remained in Egypt during the latter part of his life, enjoying the favour of that king, in spite of the schemes of his rivals to disgrace him. The account of his life cannot be carried further; we are not told when or where he died; but from the above facts his date can be fixed, since he practised his art before the death of Philip (B. C. 336), and after the assumption of the regal title by Ptolemy. (B. C. 306.) As the result of a minute examination of all the facts, Tölken (Amalth. iii. pp. 117-119) places him between 352 and 308 B. C. According to Pliny, he flonrished about the 112th Olympiad, B. C. 332. Many anecdotes are preserved of Apelles and his contemporaries, which throw an interesting light both on his personal and his professional character. He was ready to acknowledge that in some points he was excelled by other
nfluence of Attalus does not appear to have been weakened. Philip's connexion with Attalus not only thus involved him in family dissensions, but eventually cost him his life. Attalus had inflicted a grievous outrage upon Pausanias, a youth of noble family, and one of Philip's bodyguard. Pausanias complained to Philip; but, as he was unable to obtain the punishment of the offender, he resolved to be revenged upon the king himself, and accordingly assassinated him at the festival at Aegae in B. C. 336. [PHILIPPUS.] (Arist. Pol. 5.8.10; Diod. 16.93; Plut. Alex. 10; Justin, 9.6.) Attalus was in Asia at the time of Philip's death, as he had been previously sent thither, along with Parmenion and Amyntas in the command of some troops, in order to secure the Greek cities in Western Asia to the cause of Philip. (Diod. 16.91; Justin, 9.5.) Attalus could have little hope of obtaining Alexander's pardon, and therefore entered very readily into the proposition of Demosthenes to rebel against the n
s at his pleasure in the centre of the empire,--and the king was reduced to a cipher. (Diod. 16.50.) The cruelties of Ochus having excited general detestation, Bagoas at length removed him by poison, B. C. 338, fearing perhaps lest the effects of the odium in which he was held might extend to himself, and certainly not from the motive absurdly assigned by Aelian, viz. the desire of avenging the insult offered by Ochus, so many years before, to the religion of Egypt. To the murder of the king he joined that of all his sons except Arses, the youngest, whom he placed upon the throne; but, seeing reason to apprehend danger from him, he put him also to death in the third year of his reign, B. C. 336. He next conferred the crown on Codomannus (a greatgrandson of Dareius II.), who having discovered, soon after his accession, a plot of Bagoas to poison him, obliged the traitor to drink the potion himself. (Diod. 17.5; Ael. VH 6.8; Strab. xv. p.736; Arr. Anab. ii. p. 41e.; Curt. 6.3.12.) [E.E]
Calas or CALLAS (*Ka/las, *Ka/llas). 1. Son of the traitor Harpalus of Elimiotis, and first cousin to Antigonus, king of Asia, held a command in the army which Philip sent into Asia under Parmenion and Attalus, B. C. 336, to further his cause among the Greek cities there. Tn B. C. 335, Calas was defeated in a battle in the Troad by Memnon, the Rhodian, but took refuge in Rhaeteum. (Diod. 16.91, 17.7.) At the battle of the Granicus, B. C. 334, he led the Thessalian cavalry in Alexander's army; and was appointed by him in the same year to the satrapy of the Lesser or Hellespontine Phrygia, to which Paphlagonia was soon after added. (Arr. Anab. i. p. 14e., ii. p. 31d.; Curt. 3.1.24; Diod. 17.17.) After this we do not hear of Calas : it would seem, however, that he died before the treason and flight of his father in 325 [HARPALUS], as we know from Arrian that Demarchus succeeded him in the satrapy of the Hellespontine Phrygia during Alexander's life-time. (See Droysen, Gesck. der Nach
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