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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 21 21 Browse Search
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson) 20 20 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 8 8 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 6 6 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 4 4 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 3 3 Browse Search
Demosthenes, Speeches 51-61 2 2 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 2 2 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 2 2 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 2 2 Browse Search
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Aristotle, Politics, Book 2, section 1270a (search)
As a result of thisi.e. the consequent fall in the number of men rich enough to keep a horse or even to provide themselves with heavy arms. although the country is capable of supporting fifteen hundred cavalry and thirty thousand heavy-armed troopers, they numbered not even a thousand. And the defective nature of their system of land-tenure has been proved by the actual facts of history: the state did not succeed in enduring a single blow,The battle of Leuctra, 371 B.C. but perished owing to the smallness of its population. They have a tradition that in the earlier reigns they used to admit foreigners to their citizenship, with the result that dearth of population did not occur in those days, although they were at war for a long period; and it is stated that at one time the Spartiates numbered as many as ten thousand. However, whether this is true or not, it is better for a state's male population to be kept up by mea
Aristotle, Rhetoric (ed. J. H. Freese), book 2, chapter 23 (search)
nt was unanimous or the same at all times; if not, when it was at least that of the majority, or of the wise, either all or most, or of the good; or of the judges themselves or of those whose judgement they accept, or of those whose judgement it is not possible to contradict, for instance, those in authority, or of those whose judgement it is unseemly to contradict, for instance, the gods, a father, or instructors; as AutoclesAthenian ambassador to Sparta (371 B.C.), whose aggressive policy he attacked. His argument is that, if the Eumenides could agree without any loss of dignity to stand their trial before the Areopagus, as described in Aeschylus, surely Mixidemides could do the same. Nothing is known of Mixidemides, but it is clear that he refused to submit his case to it, when charged with some offense. said in his attack on Mixidemides, “If the awful goddesses were content to stand their trial before the<
Demosthenes, Against Stephanus 1, section 4 (search)
I was unable to bring a private action (for there were no actions at that time, since you put off all such matters because of the warThe reference is to the hostilities between Athens and Thebes in the period between the battle of Leuctra (371 B.C.) and the battle of Mantinea (362 B.C.).), but I indicted him before the ThesmothetaeSee note a on p. 202 of vol. 1. on the charge of outrage.The u(/brews grafh/ was a public indictment for wanton outrage. It was a criminal charge, and involved the penalty of a fine payable to the State, or, in extreme cases, even the penalty of death. It was far more serious than a charge of common assault (ai)kei/as di/kh). See Dem. 54.1 However, time passed and the indictment was evaded (seeing that actions were not being held
Demosthenes, Against Neaera, section 37 (search)
so, when peace was made in the archonship of Phrasicleides,That is, in 371 B.C. and the battle was fought at LeuctraLeuctra was a town in Boeotia. In this battle the Thebans under Epameinondas broke the power of Sparta. The date was 371 B.C. between the Thebans and the Lacedaemonians, this man Stephanus, having at the time come to Megara and 371 B.C. between the Thebans and the Lacedaemonians, this man Stephanus, having at the time come to Megara and having put up at Neaera's house, as at the house of a courtesan, and having had intercourse with her, she told him all that had taken place and her brutal treatment by Phrynion. She gave him besides all that she had brought away from Phrynion's house, and as she was eager to live at Athens, but was afraid of Phrynion because she had wronged him and he was bitter against her, and she knew he
Hyperides, Against Philippides, section 1 (search)
. . . make accusations. And they make it clear that even when they were friends of the LacedaemoniansHyperides may be alluding to the period from 378 to 371 B.C., when Athens and Thebes were at war with Sparta. their speeches were prompted not by love for them but by hatred of Athens and a willingness to flatter those whose power at any time threatened you.
Isocrates, To Philip (ed. George Norlin), section 44 (search)
And again, when fortune shifted her favorThebes became the supreme power in Greece by the battle of Leuctra, 371 B.C. and the Thebans and the Peloponnesians were one and all trying to devastate Lacedaemon, we alone among the Hellenes formed361 B.C. an alliance with the Lacedaemonians and helped to save them from destruction.In 362 B.C., when Epaminondas, at the head of the Thebans and their allies, including the Argives, Arcadians, Messenians, and the Eleans, marched on Sparta to destroy her, the Athenians dispatched Iphicrates with an army of twelve thousand to the rescue. See Isoc. 8.105; Xen. Hell. 6.5.23 ff.; Grote, Hist. x. pp. 89 ff.
Isocrates, To Philip (ed. George Norlin), section 47 (search)
The Lacedaemonians were the leaders of the Hellenes,The hegemony of Sparta lasted from the battle of Aegospotami, 405 B.C., to the battle of Leuctra, 371 B.C. not long ago, on both land and sea, and yet they suffered so great a reversal of fortune when they met defeat at Leuctra that they were deprived of their power over the Hellenes, and lost such of their warriors as chose to die rather than survive defeat at the hands of those over whom they had once been masters.
Isocrates, To Philip (ed. George Norlin), section 52 (search)
But what is most deplorable of all is that, during the intervals when their enemies cease from harrying them, they themselves put to death the most eminent and wealthy of their citizens;The conflict between democracy and oligarchy, which raged with varying intensity in most of the Greek cities, in Argos was most bitter. In 371 B.C. occurred a massacre in which twelve hundred of the leading men were slain by the mob. Dio. Sic. 15.57-58; Grote, Hist. ix. p. 417. and they have more pleasure in doing this than any other people have in slaying their foes. The cause of their living in such disorder is none other than the state of war; and if you can put a stop to this, you will not only deliver them from these evils but you will cause them to adopt a better policy with respect to their other interests as well.
Isocrates, To Philip (ed. George Norlin), section 53 (search)
And as for the condition of the Thebans, surely you have not failed to note that also. They won a splendid victoryBattle of Leuctra, 371 B.C. and covered themselves with glory, but because they did not make good use of their success they are now in no better case than those who have suffered defeat and failure. For no sooner had they triumphed over their foes than, neglecting everything else, they began to annoy the cities of the Peloponnese;Epaminondas invaded the Peloponnese in 369, 368, 366, 362, stirring up the cities there against Sparta. Dio. Sic. 15.62-75. they made bold to reduce Thessaly to subjection;By conquering Alexander of Pherae. Dio. Sic. 15.67. they threatened their neighbors, the Megarians;The Megarians sided with Sparta when Agesilaus invaded Boeotia in 378. Xen. Hell. 5.4.41. they robbed our city of a portion of its territory;The border town of Oropus, 366 B.C. Xen. Hell. 7.4.1. they ravaged Euboea;See Dem. 18.99. they sent men-of-war to Byzantium,One hundred s
Isocrates, Archidamus (ed. George Norlin), section 68 (search)
having ceased sacrificing victims at the altars they slaughter one anotherPossibly Isocrates may have in mind the massacre at Corinth in 392 B.C. (Xen. Hell. 4.4.3), the murder of certain Achaean suppliants, who took refuge in the temple of Heliconian Poseidon (Pausanias vii. 25), or the slaughter of 1200 prominent citizens in Argos in 371 B.C. (Diodorus xv. 58). Cf. Isoc. 5.52. there instead; and more people are in exile now from a single city than before from the whole of the Peloponnesus. But although the miseries which I have recounted are so many, those which remain unmentioned far outnumber them; for all the distress and all the horror in the world have come together in this
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