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Pausanias, Description of Greece, Arcadia, chapter 6 (search)
s given above was told me by the Arcadians themselves. Of their memorable achievements the oldest is the Trojan war; then comes the help they gave the Messenians in their struggle against Lacedaemon, and they also took part in the action at Plataea against the Persians.479 B.C It was compulsion rather than sympathy that made them join the Lacedaemonians in their war against Athens and in crossing over to Asia with Agesilaus;396 B.C they also followed the Lacedaemonians to Leuctra in Boeotia.371 B.C Their distrust of the Lacedaemonians was shown on many occasions; in particular, immediately after the Lacedaemonian reverse at Leuctra they seceded from them and joined the Thebans. Though they did not fight on the Greek side against Philip and the Macedonians at Chaeroneia,338 B.C nor later in Thessaly against Antipater, yet they did not actually range themselves against the Greeks. It was because of the Lacedaemonians, they say, that they took no part in resisting the Gallic threat to Th
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Arcadia, chapter 8 (search)
mon, the son of Miltiades, when he was besieging Boges and the other Persians who were holding Eion on the Strymon.476 or 477 B.C Agesipolis only copied an established custom, and one celebrated among the Greeks. After taking Mantineia, he left a small part of it inhabited, but by far the greater part he razed to the ground, settling the inhabitants in villages. Fate decreed that the Thebans should restore the Mantineans from the villages to their own country after the engagement at Leuctra,371 B.C but when restored they proved far from grateful. They were caught treating with the Lacedaemonians and intriguing for a peace with them privately without reference to the rest of the Arcadian people. So through their fear of the Thebans they openly changed sides and joined the Lacedaemonian confederacy, and when the battle took place at Mantineia between the Lacedaemonians and the Thebans under Epaminondas,362 B.C the Mantineans joined the ranks of the Lacedaemonians. Subsequently the Manti
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Arcadia, chapter 27 (search)
ges, namely Gortys, Dipoenae, Theisoa near Orchomenus, Methydrium, Teuthis, Calliae, Helisson. Only one of them, Pallantium, was destined to meet with a kindlier fate even then. Aliphera has continued to be regarded as a city from the beginning to the present day. Megalopolis was united into one city in the same year, but a few months later, as occurred the defeat of the Lacedaemonians at Leuctra, when Phrasicleides was archon at Athens, in the second year of the hundred and second Olympiad,371 B.C when Damon of Thurii was victor in the foot-race. When the citizens of Megalopolis had been enrolled in the Theban alliance they had nothing to fear from the Lacedaemonians. But when the Thebans became involved in what was called the Sacred War, and they were hard pressed by the Phocians, who were neighbors of the Boeotians, and wealthy because they had seized the sanctuary at Delphi, then the Lacedaemonians, if eagerness would have done it, would have removed bodily the Megalopolitans and
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Boeotia, chapter 13 (search)
llies, Epaminondas with a part of the army occupied to meet them a position above the Cephisian lake, under the impression that at this point the Peloponnesians would make their invasion. But Cleombrotus, the king of the Lacedaemonians, turned towards Ambrossus in Phocis. He massacred a Theban force under Chaereas, who was under orders to guard the passes, crossed the high ground and reached Leuctra in Boeotia. Here heaven sent signs to the Lacedaemonian people and to Cleombrotus personally.371 B.C The Lacedaemonian kings were accompanied on their expeditions by sheep, to serve as sacrifices to the gods and to give fair omens before battles. The flocks were led on the march by she-goats, called katoiades by the herdsmen. On this occasion, then, the wolves dashed on the flock, did no harm at all to the sheep, but killed the goats called katoiades. It was also said that the wrath of the daughters of Scedasus fell upon the Lacedaemonians. Scedasus, who lived near Leuctra, had two daughte
Plato, Symposium, section 178e (search)
and in the selfsame way we see how the beloved is especially ashamed before his lovers when he is observed to be about some shameful business. So that if we could somewise contrive to have a city or an army composed of lovers and their favorites,There was such a “sacred band” (I(ERO\S LO/XOS) at Thebes, which distinguished itself at Leuctra (371 B.C.). they could not be better citizens of their country than by thus refraining from all that is ba
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 6, chapter 3 (search)
Meanwhile the Athenians, seeing that the371 B.C. Plataeans, who were their friends, had been expelled from Boeotia and had f contrary, while they were partly ashamed to make war upon371 B.C. them and partly reckoned it to be inexpedient, they never my father's father received it from his father and handed371 B.C. it on to his descendants; and I also wish to make clear td the seed of Demeter's fruit. How, then, can it be right,371 B.C. either that you should ever come to destroy the fruit of So that you manifestly take pleasure in despotisms rather371 B.C. than in free governments. Again, when the King directed tnder their power. Hence I hope that now, when we have been371 B.C. taught that to seek selfish advantage is unprofitable, weerefore, we should become friends, from what quarter could371 B.C. we with reason expect any trouble? For who could prove sthich so desired might aid the injured cities, but that any371 B.C. which did not so desire was not under oath to be the ally
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 6, chapter 4 (search)
hous did indeed say that it seemed to him they371 B.C. ought first to disband the army in accordancefar away, with no allies except the Boeotians.371 B.C. Then his friends went to Cleombrotus and saidtle. Furthermore, reports were brought to them371 B.C. from the city that all the temples were openie war with the Thespians, while the cavalry of371 B.C. the Lacedaemonians was exceedingly poor at th of the king's tent-companions, and Cleonymus,371 B.C. the son of Sphodrias, had been killed, then t was sent to carry the news of the calamity to371 B.C. Lacedaemon arrived there on the last day of tvillages See Xen. Hell. 5.2.5-7. supported him371 B.C. stoutly; for they chanced to be under an arist him, proceeded by land through their country371 B.C. into Boeotia, appearing in many of their townllies there are those who are holding converse371 B.C. with the enemy about a treaty of friendship wn arriving at Heracleia, however, he destroyed371 B.C. the walled city of the Heracleots, manifestly
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 6, chapter 5 (search)
e in Thessaly in connection with Jason, and, after his death, down to the rule of Tisiphonus, have thus been described; now I return to the point from which I digressed to discuss these matters. When, namely, Archidamus had led back his army from371 B.C. the relief expedition to Leuctra, the Athenians, taking thought of the fact that the Peloponnesians still counted themselves bound to follow the Lacedaemonians, and that the latter were not yet in the same situation to which they had brought thed the others, after voting that both small and great cities alike should be independent, even as the King wrote, sent out the officers charged with administering the oath and directed them to administer it to the highest authorities in each city.371 B.C. And all took the oath except the Eleans.As a natural result of these proceedings the Mantineans, feeling that they were now entirely independent, all came together and voted to make Mantinea a singlecp. v. ii. 7. city and to put a wall about it.
Polybius, Histories, book 2, The First Achaean League (search)
the neighbouring barbarians, they were forced much against their will to abandon them. B. C. 405-367. Again, later on, when the Lacedaemonians met with their unexpected reverse at Leuctra, and the Thebans as unexpectedly claimed the hegemony in Greece, a feeling of uncertainty prevailed throughout the country, and especially among the Lacedaemonians and Thebans themselves, because the former refused to allow that they were beaten, the latter felt hardly certain that they had conquered. B. C. 371. On this occasion, once more, the Achaeans were the people selected by the two parties, out of all Greece, to act as arbitrators on the points in dispute. And this could not have been from any special view of their power, for at that time they were perhaps the weakest state in Greece; it was rather from a conviction of their good faith and high principles, in regard to which there was but one opinion universally entertained. At that period of their history, however, they possessed only the e
Polybius, Histories, book 2, The Second League (search)
ed.First Achaean league. In the period subsequent to this, up to the time of the establishment of the supreme authority of Alexander and Philip, their fortunes were subject to various fluctuations, but they always endeavoured to maintain intact in their league a democratical form of government, as I have already stated. This league consisted of twelve cities, all of them still surviving, with the exception of Olenus, and Helice which was engulfed by the sea before the battle of Leuctra. B. C. 371. The other ten were Patrae, Dyme, Pharae, Tritaea, Leontium, Aegium, Aegeira, Pellene, Bura, Caryneia.B. C. 323-284. In the period immediately succeeding Alexander, and before the above-named 124th Olympiad, these cities, chiefly through the instrumentality of the Macedonian kings, became so estranged and ill-disposed to each other, and so divided and opposed in their interests, that some of them had to submit to the presence of foreign garrisons, sent first by Demetrius and Cassander, and af
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