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y believe the statement of the accused, the bough was placed there by Callias himself, who was provoked at having been thwarted by Andocides in a very disgraceful and profligate attempt. In B. C. 392, we find him in command of the Athenian heavy-armed troops at Corinth on the occasion of the famous defeat of the Spartan Mora by Iphicrates. (Xen. Hell. 4.5.13.) He was hereditary proxenus of Sparta, and, as such, was chosen as one of the envoys empowered to negotiate peace with that state in B. C. 371, on which occasion Xenophon reports an extremely absurd and self-glorifying speech of his (Hell. 6.3.2, &c., comp. 5.4.22.) A vain and silly dilettante, an extravagant and reckless profligate, he dissipated all his ancestral wealth on sophists, flatterers, and women; and so early did these propensities appear in him, that he was commonly spoken of, before his father's death, as the "evil genius" (a)lith/rios) of his family. (Andoc. de Myst. § 130, &c.; comp. Aristoph. Frogs 429, Av. 284. &
Cephiso'dotus 2. An Athenian general and orator, who was sent with Callias, Autocles, and others (B. C. 371) to negotiate peace with Sparta. (Xen. Hell. 6.3.2.) Again, in B. C. 369, when the Spartan ambassadors had come to Athens to settle the terms of the desired alliance between the states, and the Athenian council had proposed that the land-forces of the confederacy should be under the command of Sparta, and the navy under that of Athens, Cephisodotus persuaded the assembly to reject the proposal, on the ground that, while Athenian citizens would have to serve under Spartan generals, few but Helots (who principally manned the ships) would be subject to Athenian control. Another arrangement was then adopted, by which the command of the entire force was to be held by each state alternately for five days. (Xen. Hell. 7.1. §§ 12-14.) It seems to have been about B. C. 359 that he was sent out with a squadron to the Hellespont, where the Athenians hoped that the Euboean adventurer, Char
ther. (Paus. 8.30.5.) Now, as it is evident that the inhabitants of that town would erect a temple to the preserver of their new-built city immediately after its foundation, Cephisodotus most likely finished his work not long after Ol. 102. 2. (B. C. 371.) It seems that at the same time, after the congress of Sparta, B. C. 371, he executed for the Athenians a statue of Peace, holding Plutus the god of riches in her arms. (Paus. 1.8.2, 9.16.2.) We ascribe this work to the elder Cephisodotus, altB. C. 371, he executed for the Athenians a statue of Peace, holding Plutus the god of riches in her arms. (Paus. 1.8.2, 9.16.2.) We ascribe this work to the elder Cephisodotus, although a statue of Enyo is mentioned as a work of Praxiteles' sons, because after Ol. 120 we know of no peace which the Athenians might boast of, and because in the latter passage Pausanias speaks of the plan of Cephisodotus as equally good with the work of his contemporary and companion Xenophon, which in the younger Cephisodotus would have been only an imitation. The most numerous group of his workmanship were the nine Muses on mount Helicon, and three of another group there, completed by Stro
Cleo'nymus 2. A Spartan, son of Sphodrias, was much beloved by Archidamus, the son of Agesilaus. When Sphodrias was brought to trial for his incursion into Attica in B. C. 378, the tears of Cleonymus prevailed on the prince to intercede with Agesilaus on his behalf. The king, to gratify his son, used all his influence to save the accused, who was accordingly acquitted. Cleonymus was extremely grateful, and assured Archidamus that he would do his best to give him no cause to be ashamed of their friendship. He kept his promise well, acting ever up to the Spartan standard of virtue, and fell at Leuctra, B. C. 371, bravely fighting in the foremost ranks. (Xen. Hell. 5.4. §§ 25-33; Plut. Ages. 25, 28
Corvus 2. M. Valerius Corvus, one of the most illustrious men in the early history of the republic, was born about B. C. 371 in the midst of the struggles attending the Licinian laws. Being a member of the great Valerian house, he had an early opportunity of distinguishing himself, and we accordingly find him serving in B. C. 349 as military tribune in the army of the consul L. Furius Camillus in his campaign against the Gauls. His celebrated exploit in this war, from which he obtained the surname of " Corvus," or " Raven," is, like many other of the achievements of the early Roman heroes, mingled with fable. A Gallic warrior of gigantic size challenged to single combat any one of the Romans. It was accepted by Valerius after obtaining the consent of the consul, and as he was commencing the combat, a raven settled upon his helmet, and, as often as he attacked the Gaul, the raven flew at the face of the foe, till at length the barbarian fell by the sword of Valerius. A general battle
the spirit and confidence of the Theban youths, urging them to match themselves in gymnastic exercises with the Lacedaemonians of the citadel, and rebuking them, when successful in these, for the tameness of their submission to the invaders ; and, when the first step in the enterprise had been taken, ard Archias and Leontiades were slain, he came forward and took part decisively with Pelopidas and his confederates. (Plut. Pel. 5, 12, de Gen. Soc. 3; Polyaen. 2.2; Xen. Hell. 5.4.2, &c.) In B. C. 371, when the Athenian envoys went to Sparta to negotiate peace, Epaminondas also came thither, as an ambassador, to look after the interests of Thebes, and highly distinguished himself by his eloquence and ready wit in the debate which ensued on the question whether Thebes should be allowed to ratify the treaty in the name of all Boeotia, thus obtaining a recognition of her claim to supremacy over the Boeotian towns. This being refused by the Spartans, the Thebans were excluded from the treat
Euca'mpidas (*Eu)kaampi/das), less properly EUCA'LPIDAS (*Eu)kalpi/das), an Arcadian of Maenalus, is mentioned by Demosthenes as one of those who, for the sake of private gain, became the instruments of Philip of Macedon in sapping the independence of their country. Polybius censures Demosthenes for his injustice in bringing so sweeping a charge against a number of distinguished men, and defends the Arcadians and Messenians in particular for their connexion with Philip At the worst, he says, they are chargeable only with an error of judgment, in not seeing what was best for their country; and he thinks that, even in this point, they were justified by the result, --as if the result might not have been different, had they taken a different course. (Dem. de Cor. pp. 245, 324; Plb. 17.14.) [CINEAS.] Eucampidas is mentioned by Pausanias (8.27) as one of those who led the Maenalian settlers to Megalopolis, to form part of the population of the new city, B. C. 371. [E.
lso entered into an alliance with Amyntas II., king of Macedonia. (Xen. Hell. 6.1. §§ 2-19; Diod. 15.60; Plut. Pol. Praec. 24, Reg. et Imp. Apoph. Epam. 13.). In B. C. 373 Jason and Alcetas I., king of Epeirus, came to Athens, with which they were both in alliance at the time, to intercede on behalf of TIMOTHEUS, who was acquitted, on his trial, in a great measure through their influence. (Dem. c. Tim. pp. 1187, 1190; Corn. Nep. Tim. 4; comp. Rehdantz, Vit. Iphicr., Chabr., Tim. p. 91.) In B. C. 371, after the battle of Leuctra, the Thebans sent intelligence of it to Jason, as their ally, requesting his aid. Accordingly, he manned some triremes, as if he meant to go to the help of the Thebans by sea; and having thus thrown the Phocians off their guard, marched repidly through their country, and arrived safely at Leuctra. Here the Thebans were anxious that he should join them in pressing their victory over the enemy; but Jason (who had no wish to see Thebes any more than Sparta in a co
opomp. apud Athen. xii. p. 532b), and we have seen that he did not allow considerations of patriotism to stand in the way of his advancement by a foreign service and alliance. Yet we do not find the Athenians depriving him of the almost unprecedented honours with which they had loaded him, and of which one Harmodius (a descendant, it seems, of the murderer of Hipparchus) had endeavoured to strip him by a prosecution. We do not know at what period this case was tried; but it was probably in B. C. 371, after the return of Iphicrates from the Ionian Sea. (Dem. c. Arist. p. 663-665; Plut. Apoph. Iph. 5; Arist. Rhet. 2.23. §§ 6, 8; Pseudo-Plut. Vit. X. Orat. Lys. ad fin.; Rehdantz, 6.2.) If the Athenians had a strong sense of his value, he appears on his part to have presumed upon it not a little. He had also, however, in all probability, a strong party in Athens (for his friendly connection with Lysias see above), and the circumstances of the times would always throw considerable power in
ing further exasperated by their acquittal, he continued his rancorous attacks on them; and, as he was a powerful speaker, he so far succeeded against Epaminondas as to exclude him from the office of Boeotarch. Against Pelopidas his efforts were of no avail, and he therefore endeavoured, in the true spirit of envy, to throw his merits into the shade, by advancing and exaggerating those of Charon. The latter had been successful in a slight skirmish of cavalry just before the great battle of Leuctra (B. C. 371), and Menecleidas brought forward a decree for commemorating the exploit by a picture, to be dedicated in one of the temples, and inscribed with Charon's name. For this he was impeached by Pelopidas, on the ground that the honour of all victories belonged, not to any individual, but to the state. He was found guilty and fined; and his inability to pay the penalty led him afterwards to enter into revolutionary designs against his country. (Plut. Pel. 25. See Vol. II. p. 23a.) [E.E]
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