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Aristarchus 3. A Lacedaemonian, who in B. C. 400 was sent out to succeed Cleander as harmost of Byzantium. The Greeks who had accompanied Cyrus in his expedition against his brother Artaxerxes, had recently returned, and the main body of them had encamped near Byzantium. Several of them, however, had sold their arms and taken up their residence in the city itself. Aristarchus, following the instructions he had received from Anaxibius, the Spartan admiral, whom he had met at Cyzicus, sold all these, amounting to about 400, as slaves. Having been bribed by Pharnabazus, he prevented the troops from recrossing into Asia and ravaging that satrap's province, and in various ways annoyed and ill-treated them. (Xen. Anab. 7.2. §§ 4-7, 7.3. §§ 1-3, 7.6. §§ 13
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Parysatis, and she endeavoured to obtain the throne for him; but Dareius gave to Cyrus only the satrapy of western Asia, and Artaxerxes on his accession confirmed his brother in his satrapy, on the request of Parysatis, although he suspected him. (Xenoph. Anab. 1.1.3 ; Plut. Art. 3.) Cyrus, however, revolted against his brother, and supported by Greek mercenaries invaded Upper Asia. In the neighbourhood of Cunaxa, Cyrus gained a great victory over the far more numerous army of his brother, B. C. 400], but was slain in the battle. [CYRUS.] Tissaphernes was appointed satrap of western Asia in the place of Cyrus (Xenoph. Hellen. 3.1.3), and was actively engaged in wars with the Greeks. [THIMBRON; DERCYLLIDAS; AGESILAUS.] Notwithstanding these perpetual conflicts with the Greeks, the Persian empire maintained itself by the disunion among the Greeks themselves, which was fomented and kept up by Persian money. The peace of Antalcidas, in B. C. 388, gave the Persians even greater power and
Bacchy'lides 2. Of Opus, a poet, whom Plato, the comic poet (about B. C. 400), attacked in his play entitled the Sophists. (Suidas, s. v. *Sofisth/s.)
Ca'llias III. 6. CALLIAS III., son of Hipponicus III. by the lady who married Pericles (Plut. Per. 24), was notorious for his extravagance and profligacy. We have seen, that he must have succeeded to his fortune in B. C. 424, which is not perhaps irreconcileable with the mention of him in the "Flatterers" of Eupolis, the comic poet, B. C. 421, as having recently entered on the inheritance. (Athen. 5.218c.) In B. C. 400, he was engaged in the attempt to crush Andocides by a charge of profanation, in having placed a supplicatory bough on the altar of the temple at Eleusis during the celebration of the mysteries (Andoc. de Myst. § 110, &c.); and, if we may believe the statement of the accused, the bough was placed there by Callias himself, who was provoked at having been thwarted by Andocides in a very disgraceful and profligate attempt. In B. C. 392, we find him in command of the Athenian heavy-armed troops at Corinth on the occasion of the famous defeat of the Spartan Mora by Iphicrat
Callicles (*Kalliklh=s). 1. A statuary of Megara, who lived about B. C. 400. (See Siebelis, ad Paus. iii. p. 29.) His principal works seem to have been Olympian victors (Paus. 6.7. §§ 1, 3), and philosophers. (Plin. Nat. 34.8. s. 1
Calvus 1. P. Licinius Calvus, consular tribune in B. C. 400, and the first plebeian who was elected to that magistracy. (Liv. 5.12.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Capitoli'nus, P. Mae'lius twice consular tribune, in B. C. 400 and 396. (Liv. 5.12, 18.) [L.S]
mus, who flourished at and after the time of the Thirty Tyrants, in effecting whose overthrow he appears to have borne a leading part. He is placed by Clinton at B. C. 402, on the authority of Deinarchus c. Demosth. p. 100. 4, ed. Steph., compare p. 95. 7-8.) This date is confirmed by Demosthenes, who mentions him in connexion with Callistratus, Aristophon the Azenian, and Thrasybulus. (De Coron. p. 301.) He is summoned by Andocides to plead for him at the end of the oration De Mysteriis. (B. C. 400.) He flourished at least thirty years longer. Aeschines (who calls him o( palaio\s e)kei=nos o( dokw=n dhmotikw/tatos gegone/nai) relates, that, on one occasion, when he was opposed to Aristophon the Azenian, the latter boasted that he had been acquitted seventy-five times of accusations against his public conduct, but Cephalus replied, that during his long public life he had never been accused. (c. Ctesiph. p. 81. 39, ed. Steph.; see the answer of Dem. de Coron. pp. 310-11.) He had a daug
Cleander 3. A Lacedaemnonian, was harmost at Byzantium in B. C. 400, and promised Cheirisophus to meet the Cyrean Greeks at Calpe with ships to convey them to Europe. On their reaching that place, however, they found that Cleander had neither come nor sent; and when he at length arrived, he brought only two triremes, and no transports. Soon after his arrival, a tumult occurred, in which the traitor Dexippus was rather roughly handled, and Cleander, instigated by him, threatened to sail away, to denounce the army as enemies, and to issue orders that no Greek city should receive them. [DEXIPPUS.] They succeeded, however, in pacifying him by extreme submission, and he entered into a connexion of hospitality with Xenophon, and accepted the offer of leading the army home. But he wished probably to avoid the possibility of any hostile collision with Pharnabazus, and, the sacrifices being declared to be unfavourable for the projected march, he sailed back to Byzantium, promising to give the
obtain money from Pharnabazus, and to collect forces, he left the command of the garrison to Helixus, a Megarian, and Coeratadas, who were soon after compelled to surrender themselves as prisoners when certain parties within the town had opened the gates to Alcibiades. [CLEARCHUS.] They were sent to Athens, but during the disembarkation at the Peiraeeus, Coeratadas contrived to escape in the crowd, and made his way in safety to Deceleia. (Xen. Hell. 1.3. §§ 15-22; Diod. 13.67; Plut. Alc. 31.) In B. C. 400, when the Cyrean Greeks had arrived at Byzantium, Coeratadas, who was going about in search of employment as a general, prevailed on them to choose him as their commander, promising to lead them into Thrace on an expedition of much profit, and to supply them plentifully with provisions. It was however almost immediately discovered that he had no means of supporting them for even a single day, and he was obliged accordingly to relinquish his command. (Xen. Anab. 7.1. §§ 33-41.) [
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