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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 39 39 Browse Search
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson) 24 24 Browse Search
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Diodorus Siculus, Library 3 3 Browse Search
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Lysias, Speeches 2 2 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 2 2 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 404 BC or search for 404 BC in all documents.

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432), he must have been at least five years old at the time of his father's death. Nepos (Alcib. 10) says he was about forty years old at the time of his death (B. C. 404), and his mistake has been copied by Mitford. Alcibiades was connected by birth with the noblest families of Athens. Through his father he traced his descent ffore the fatal battle of Aegos-Potami (B. C. 405), he gave an ineffectual warning to the Athenian generals. After the establishment of the tyranny of the Thirty (B. C. 404), he was condemned to banishment. Upon this he took refuge with Pharnabazus, and was about to proceed to the court of Artaxerxes, when one night his house was surrounded by a band of armed men, and set on fire. He rushed out sword in hand, but fell, pierced with arrows. (B. C. 404.) According to Diodorus and Ephorus (Diod. 14.11) the assassins were emissaries of Pharnabazus, who had been led to this step either by his own jealousy of Alcibiades, or by the instigation of the Spartans. It is
ly, and, according to Diodorus and Plutarch, who mention this as the first instance of such corruption at Athens, escaped death only by bribing the judges. (Xen. Hell. 1.2.18; Diod. 13.64; Plut. Cor. p. 220b.; Aristot. apud Harpocr. s. v. *Deka/zwn. But see Thirlwall's Greece, vol. iv. p. 94.) He appears to have been, in politics, a leading and influential man, to have attached himself to the democratic party, and to have been driven into banishment during the usurpation of the 30 tyrants, B. C. 404. Xenophon makes Theramenes join his name with that of Thrasybulus; and Lysias mentions him as a leader of the exiles at Phyle, and records an instance of his prudence and moderation in that capacity. (Plat. Men. p. 90; Apol. p. 23e.; Xen. Apol. § 29; Hell. 2.3. §§ 42, 44 ; Lys. c. Agor. p. 137.) The grounds of his enmity to Socrates seem to have been partly professional and partly personal. (Plat. Apol. pp. 21-23 ; Xen. Mem. 1.2. §§ 37, 38; Apol. § 29; Plat. Men. p. 94, in fin.) The Atheni<
Ari'stophon 1. A native of the demos of Azenia in Attica. (Aeschin. c. Tim. p. 159, c. Ctes. pp. 532, 583, ed. Reiske.) He lived about and after the end of the Peloponnesian war. In B. C. 412, Aristophon, Laespodius and Melesias were sent to Sparta as ambassadors by the oligarchical government of the Four Hundred. (Thuc. 8.86.) In the archonship of Eucleides, B. C. 404, after Athens was delivered of the thirty tyrants, Aristophon proposed a law which, though beneficial to the republic, yet caused great uneasiness and troubles in many families at Athens; for it ordained, that no one should be regarded as a citizen of Athens whose mother was not a freeborn woman. (Caryst. apud Atwcn. xiii. p. 577; Taylor, Vit. Lys. p. 149, ed. Reiske.) He also proposed various other laws, by which he acquired great popularity and the full confidence of the people (Dem. c. Eubul. p. 1308), and their great number may be inferred from his own statement (ap. Aeschin. c. Ctes. p. 583), that he was accused 7
Aristo'teles (*)Aristote/lhs), was one of the thirty tyrants established at Athens in B. C. 404. (Xen. Hell. 2.3.2.) From an allusion in the speech of Theramenes before his condemnation (Xen. Hell. 2.3.46), Aristoteles appears to have been also one of the Four Hundred, and to have taken an active part in the scheme of fortifying Eetionia and admitting the Spartans into the Peiraeeus, B. C. 411. (Thuc. 8.90.) In B. C. 405 he was living in banishment, and is mentioned by Xenophon as being with Lysander during the siege of Athens. (Hell. 2.2.18.) Plato introduces him as one of the persons in the "Parmenides," and as a very young man at the time of the dialogue. [E.
Calli'bius (*Kalli/bios). 1. The Harmost who commanded the garrison with which the Spartans occupied Athens at the request of the Thirty tyrants, B. C. 404. The story told by Plutarch of his raising his staff to strike Autolycus the Athlete (whom the Thirty put to death for presuming to resent the insult), shews that he formed no exception to the coarse and overbearing demeanour so common with Spartan governosrs. The tyrants conciliated his favour by the most studious deference,--the above case is a strong instance of it, --and he allowed them accordingly to use his soldiers at their pleasure as the instruments of their oppression. (Xen. Hell. 2.3. §§ 13, 14; Diod. 14.4; Plutt. Lysand.
(*Zhthtai/) appointed to investigate the affair of the mutilation of the Hermae in B. C. 415, on which occasion he inflamed the passions of the with a plot for the destruction of the democracy. (Thuc. 6.27-29, 53, 60, &c.; Andoc. de Myst. p. 6.) In B. C. 413 he was sent in command of a squadron round the Peloponnesus together with Demosthenes, and succeeded with him in fortifying a small peninsula on the coast of Laconia, to serve as a position for annoying the enemy. (Thuc. 7.20, 26.) In B. C. 404 he was appointed one of the thirty tyrants; nor did he relinquish under the new government the coarse arts of the demagogue which had distinguished him under the democracy, violent and tyrannical measures. We may conelude, that he was one of the remnant of the Thirty who withdrew to Eleusis on the establishment of the council of Ten, and who, according to Xenophon, were treacherously murdered in a conference by the leaders of the popular party on the restoration of democracy in B. C. 403.
1. An Athenian, son of Glaucon, was cousin to Critias and uncle by the mother's side to Plato, who introduces him in the dialogue which bears his name as a very young man at the commencement of the Peloponnesian war. (Comp. Heind. ad Plat. Charm. p. 154, and the authorities there referred to.) In the same dialogue he is represented as a very amiable youth and of surpassing beauty, and he appears again in the " Protagoras" at the house of Callias, son of Hipponicus. [See p. 567b.] We learn from Xenophon, that he was a great favourite with Socrates, and was possessed of more than ordinary ability, though his excessive diffidence deprived his country of the services which he might have rendered her as a statesman. In B. C. 404 he was one of the Ten who were appointed, over and above the thirty tyrants, to the special government of the Peiraeeus, and he was slain fighting against Thrasybulus at the battle of Munychia in the same year. (Xen. Mem. 3.6, 7, Hell. 2.4.19 ; Schneid. ad loc.
Choe'rilus 3. Choerilus of Samos, the author of an epic poem on the wars of the Greeks with Xerxes and Dareius. Suidas (s. v.) says, that he was a contemporary of Panyasis and a young man (neani/skon) at the time of the Persian war, in the 75th Olympiad. But this is next to impossible, for Plutarch (Plut. Lys. 18) tells us that, when Lysander was at Sainos (B. C. 404), Choerilus was residing there, and was highly honoured by Lysander, who hoped that the poet would celebrate his exploits. This was 75 years later than the 75th Olympiad : and therefore, if this date has anythlig to do with Choerilus, it must be the date of his birth (B. C. 479); and this agrees with another statement of Suidas, which implies that Choerilus was younger than Herodotus (ou(/tinos au)to\n kai/ paridika\ yeyo ne/nai fasin). We have here perhaps the explanation of the error of Suidas, who, from the connexion of both Panyasis and Choerilus with Herodotus, and from the fact that both were epic poets, may have c
Cleo'critus (*Kleo/kritos), an Athenian, herald of the Mysteries, was one of the exiles who returned to Athens with Thrasybulus. After the battle of Munychia, B. C. 404, being remarkable for a very powerful voice, he addressed his countrymen who had fought on the side of the Thirty, calling on them to abandon the cause of the tyrants and put an end to the horrors of civil war. (Xen. Hell. 2.4. §§ 20-22.) His person was as burly as his voice was loud, as we may gather from the joke of Aristophanes (Aristoph. Frogs 1433), who makes Euripides propose to fit on the slender Cinesias by way of wings to Cleocritus, and send them up into the air together to squirt vinegar into the eyes of the Spartans. The other passage also in which Aristophanes mentions him (Av. 876), may perhaps be best explained as an allusion to his stature. (See Schol. ad loc.) [
Cleome'des (*Kleomh/dhs), an Athenian, son of Lycomedes, was one of the commanders of the expedition against Melos in B. C. 416. He is mentioned also by Xenophon as one of the 30 tyrants appointed in B. C. 404. (Thuc. 5.84, &c.; Xen. Hell. 2.3.2.) Schneider's conjecture with respect to him (ad Xen. l.c.) is inadmissible. [E.
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