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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 29 29 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 425 BC or search for 425 BC in all documents.

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Aristeides 3. Son of Archippus, an Athenian commander of the ships sent to collect money from the Greek states in B. C. 425 and 424. (Thuc. 4.50, 75.)
old Attic comedy. For the ancients seem to distinguish the comic poets who flourished before the Peloponnesian war from those who lived during that war, and Aristomenes belonged to the latter. (Suidas, s. v. *)Aristome/nhs ; Eudocia, p. 65; Argum. ad Aristoph. Equit.) He was sometimes ridiculed by the surname o( *Duropoio/s,which may have been derived from the circumstance that either he himself or his father, at one time, was an artizan, perhaps a carpenter. Works As early as the year B. C. 425, he brought out a piece called u(lofo/roi, on the same occasion that the Equites of Aristophanes and the Satyri of Cratinus were performed; and if it is true that another piece entitled Admetus was performed at the same time with the Plutus of Aristophanes, in B. C. 389, the dramatic career of Aristomenes was very long. (Argum. ad Aristoph. Plut.) But we know of only a few comedies of Aristomenes ; Meineke conjectures that the Admetus was brough out together with the first edition of Arist
and therefore, though we allow him to have been honest and bold, we must deny him the epithet of great. Works We subjoin a catalogue of the comedies of Aristophanes on which we possess information, and a short account of the most remarkable. Those marked † are extant. B. C. 427. *Daitalei=s, Banquetters. Second prize. The play was produced under the name of Philonides, as Aristophanes was below the legal age for competing for a prize. Fifth year of the war. 426. Babylonians (e)n a)/stei). 425. † Acharnians. (Lenaea.) Produced in the name of Callistratus. First prize. 424. † *(Ippei=s, Knights or Horsemen. (Lenaea.) The first play produced in the name of Aristophanes himself. First prize; second Cratinus. 423. † Clouds (e)n a)/stei). First prize, Cratinus; second Ameipsias. 422. † Wasps. (Lenaea.) Second prize. *Ghra=s (?) (e)n a)/stei), according to the probable conjecture of Süvern. (Essay on the *Ghra=s, translated by Mr. Hamilton.) Clouds (second edition), failed in obtaini
Artaphernes 3. A Persian, who was sent by king Artaxerxes I., in B. C. 425, with a letter to Sparta. While he passed through Eion on the Strymon, he was arrested by Aristeides, the son of Archippus, and carried to Athens, where the letter of his king was opened and translated. It contained a complaint of the king, that owing to the many and discrepant messages they had sent to him, he did not know what they wanted; and he therefore requested them to send a fresh embassy back with Artaphernes, and to explain clearly what they wished. The Athenians thought this a favourable opportunity for forming connexions themselves with Persia, and accordingly sent Artaphernes in a galley, accompanied by Athenian ambassadors, to Ephesus. On their arrival there they received intelligence of the death of king Artaxerxes, and the Athenians returned home. (Thuc. 4.50.) [L.S]
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Artaxerxes I. or Artaxerxes Longinmanus surnamed Longimanus (*Makro/xeir) from the circumstance of his right hand being longer than his left (Plut. Art. 1), was king of Persia for forty years, from B. C. 465 to B. C. 425. (Diod. 11.69, 12.64; Thuc. 4.50.) He ascended the throne after his father, Xerxes I., had been murdered by Artabanus, and after he himself had put to death his brother Darcius on the instigation of Artabanus. (Just. 3.1 ; Ctesias, apud Phot. Bibl. p. 40a., ed. Bekk.) His reigccurrences Megabyzus revolted in Syria, because Artaxerxes had put Inarus to death contrary to the promise which Megabyzus had made to Inarus, when he made him his prisoner. Subsequently, however, Megabyzus became reconciled to his master. (Ctesias, apud Phot. Bibl. p. 50, &c.; comp. MEGABYZUS, INARUS.) Artaxerxes appears to have passed the latter years of his reign in peace. On his death in B. C. 425, he was succeeded by his son Xerxes II. (Clinton, Fast. Hell. ii., sub anno, 455, and p. 380.)
Atrati'nus 4. A. Sempronius Atratinus, L. F. A. N., son of No. 3, was consular tribune three times, in B. C. 425, 420, and 416. (Liv. 4.35, 44, 47 ; Diod. 12.81, 13.9.)
Barba'tus 2. L. Horatius Barbatus, consular tribune, B. C. 425. (Liv. 4.35.)
=Wrai. The difference between this list and the statement of the grammarians, who give to Cratinus only twenty-one plays, may be reconciled on the supposition that some of these plays had been lost when the grammarians wrote, as, for example, the *Sa/turoi and *Xeimazo/menoi, which are mentioned only in the Didascalia of the Knights and Acharnians. Dateable Plays The following are the plays of Cratinus, the date of which is known with certainty :-- B. C. >About 448. *)Arxi/loxoi. In 425. *Xeimazo/menoi, 2nd prize. Aristophanes was first, with the Acharnians. 424. *Sa/turoi, 2nd prize. Aristophanes was first, with the Knights. 423. *Puti/nh, 1st prize. 2nd. Ameipsias, *Ko/nnos. 3rd. Aristoph. *Nefe/lai. Ancient Commentators The chief ancient commentators on Cratinus were Asclepiades, Didymus, Callistratus, Euphronius, Symmachus, Aristarchus, and the Scholiasts. Edition Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. i. pp. 43-58, ii. pp. 13-232. Further Information Bergk, Comm
Cte'sias (*Kth/sias). 1. Of Cnidus in Caria, and a son of Ctesiochus or Ctesiarchus. (Suid. s. v. *Kth/sias; Eudocia, p. 268; Tzetz. Chil. 1.82.) Cnidus was celebrated from early times as a seat of medical knowledge, and Ctesias, who himself belonged to the family of the Asclepiadae, was a physician by profession. He was a contemporary of Xenophon; and if Herodotus lived till B. C. 425, or, according to some, even till B. C. 408, Ctesias may be called a contemporary of Herodotus. He lived for a number of years in Persia at the court of king Artaxerxes Mnemon, as private physician to the king. (Strab. xiv. p.656.) Diodorus (2.32) states, that Ctesias was made prisoner by the king, and that owing to his great skill in medicine, he was afterwards drawn to the court, and was highly honoured there. This statement, which contains nothing to suggest the time when Ctesias was made prisoner, has been referred by some critics to the war between Artaxerxes and his brother, Cyrus the Younger,
Epitadas (*)Epita/das), son of Molobrus, was the commander of the 420 Lacedaemonians who were blockaded in the island of Sphacteria in the 7th year of the Peloponnesian war, B. C. 425. He appears to have executed his difficult task with prudence and ability, and was spared by death in the final combat the disgrace of surrender. (Thuc. 4.8, 31, 38.) [A.H.
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