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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 38 38 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 3 3 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3 3 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 3 3 Browse Search
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson) 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Sir Richard C. Jebb, Commentary on Sophocles: Antigone 1 1 Browse Search
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Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XII, Chapter 38 (search)
431 B.C.When Euthydemus was archon in Athens, the Romans elected in place of consuls three military tribunes, Manius Aemilianus Mamercus, Gaius Julius, and Lucius Quinctius. In this year there began the Peloponnesian War, as it has been called, between the Athenians and the Peloponnesians, the longest of all the wars which history records; and it is necessary and appropriate to the plan of our history to set forth at the outset the causesThe following "causes" are clearly drawn from a violent anti-Periclean source, and Diodorus himself appears to wish to disavow them when he states (chap. 41.1) that he has taken them directly from Ephorus. of the war. While the Athenians were still striving for the mastery of the sea, the funds which had been collected as a common undertaking and placed at Delos, amounting to some eight thousand talents,Given as ten thousand in chaps. 40.2; 54.3; Book 13.21.2. they had transferred to Athe
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XII, Chapter 41 (search)
431 B.C.Now the causes of the Peloponnesian War were in general what I have described, as Ephorus has recorded them. And when the leading states had become embroiled in war in this fashion, the Lacedaemonians, sitting in council with the Peloponnesians, voted to make war upon the Athenians, and dispatching ambassadors to the king of the Persians, urged him to ally himself with them, while they also treated by means of ambassadors with their allies in Sicily and Italy and persuaded them to come to their aid with two hundred triremes; and for their own part they, together with the Peloponnesians, got ready their land forces, made all other preparations for the war, and were the first to commence the conflict. For in Boeotia the city of the Plataeans was an independent state and had an alliance with the Athenians.The fuller account of the following incident is in Thuc. 2.2 ff. But certain of its citizens, wishing to destroy its ind
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XII, Chapter 50 (search)
ing as he did over a territory so extensive he enjoyed annual revenues of more than a thousand talents; and when he was waging war in the period we are discussing he mustered from Thrace more than one hundred and twenty thousand infantry and fifty thousand cavalry. But with respect to this war we must set forth its causes, in order that the discussion of it may be clear to our readers.Now Sitalces, since he had entered into a treaty of friendship with the Athenians,In 431 B.C. The war described below opened two years later. agreed to support them in their war in Thrace; and consequently, since he desired, with the help of the Athenians, to subdue the Chalcidians, he made ready a very considerable army. And since he was at the same time on bad terms with Perdiccas, the king of the Macedonians, he decided to bring back Amyntas, the son of Philip, and place him upon the Macedonian throne.Perdiccas had driven his brother Philip from the
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Attica, chapter 29 (search)
ies, first with Iolaus to Sardinia, secondly to what is now Ionia, and thirdly on the present occasion to Thrace. Before the monument is a slab on which are horsemen fighting. Their names are Melanopus and Macartatus, who met their death fighting against the Lacedaemonians and Boeotians on the borders of Eleon and Tanagra. There is also a grave of Thessalian horsemen who, by reason of an old alliance, came when the Peloponnesians with Archidamus invaded Attica with an army for the first time431 B.C., and hard by that of Cretan bowmen. Again there are monuments to Athenians: to Cleisthenes, who invented the system of the tribes at present existing508 B.C., and to horsemen who died when the Thessalians shared the fortune of war with the Athenians. Here too lie the men of Cleone, who came with the Argives into Attica457 B.C.; the occasion whereof I shall set forth when in the course of my narrative I come to the Argives. There is also the grave of the Athenians who fought against the Ae
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Corinth, chapter 29 (search)
beginning to other lands. Subsequently a division of the Argives who, under Deiphontes, had seized Epidaurus, crossed to Aegina, and, settling among the old Aeginetans, established in the island Dorian manners and the Dorian dialect. Although the Aeginetans rose to great power, so that their navy was superior to that of Athens, and in the Persian war supplied more ships than any state except Athens, yet their prosperity was not permanent but when the island was depopulated by the Athenians,431 B.C. they took up their abode at Thyrea, in Argolis, which the Lacedaemonians gave them to dwell in. They recovered their island when the Athenian warships were captured in the Hellespont,405 B.C. yet it was never given them to rise again to their old wealth or power. Of the Greek islands, Aegina is the most difficult of access, for it is surrounded by sunken rocks and reefs which rise up. The story is that Aeacus devised this feature of set purpose, because he feared piratical raids by sea, and
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Corinth, chapter 38 (search)
ere three hundred picked Argives fought for this land with an equal number of specially chosen Lacedaemonian warriors548 B.C.. All were killed except one Spartan and two Argives, and here were raised the graves for the dead. But the Lacedaemonians, having fought against the Argives with all their forces, won a decisive victory; at first they themselves enjoyed the fruits of the land, but afterwards they assigned it to the Aeginetans, when they were expelled from their island by the Athenians431 B.C.. In my time Thyreatis was inhabited by the Argives, who say that they recovered it by the award of an arbitration338 B.C. As you go from these common graves you come to Athene, where Aeginetans once made their home, another village Neris, and a third Eua, the largest of the villages, in which there is a sanctuary of Polemocrates. This Polemocrates is one of the sons of Machaon, and the brother of Alexanor; he cures the people of the district, and receives honors from the neighbours. Above t
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 2, chapter 2 (search)
from Piraeus through the long walls to the city, one man passing on the news to another; and during that night no one slept, all mourning, not for the405 B.C. lost alone, but far more for their own selves, thinking that they would suffer such treatment as they had visited upon the Melians,When Melos surrendered to the Athenians, in 416 B.C., the men who were taken were put to death and the women and children sold into slavery (Thuc. v. 116). The Aeginetans were expelled from their island in 431 B.C. Seven years later a large number of them were captured in their place of refuge, in Peloponnesus, and put to death (Thuc. ii. 27 and iv. 57). The other peoples mentioned had been similarly exiled, enslaved, or massacred. colonists of the Lacedaemonians, after reducing them by siege, and upon the Histiaeans and Scionaeans and Toronaeans and Aeginetans and many other Greek peoples. On the following day they convened an Assembly, at which it was resolved to block up all the harbours except one
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK XXXIII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF METALS., CHAP. 11.—AT WHAT PERIOD THE FIRST CROWN OF GOLD WAS PRESENTED. (search)
CHAP. 11.—AT WHAT PERIOD THE FIRST CROWN OF GOLD WAS PRESENTED. But, a thing that is more surprising still, crownsOn this subject, see B. xvi. c. 3, and B. xxi. c. i. of gold were given to the citizens as well. As to the person who was first presented with one, so far as I have enquired, I have not been able to ascertain his name: L. Piso says, however, that the DictatorA.U.C. 323, or 431 B.C. A. Posthumius was the first who conferred one: on taking the camp of the Latins at Lake Regillus,Situate about fourteen miles from Rome, and on the road to the town called La Colonna. he gave a crown of gold, made from the spoil, to the soldier whose valour had mainly contributed to this success. L. Lentulus, also, when consul,A.U.C. 479, and B.C. 275. In the following year Merenda himself was consul, with Manius Curius Dentatus. presented one to Servius Cornelius Merenda, on taking a town of the Samnites; but in his case it was five pounds in weight. Piso Frugi, too, presented his son with
Sir Richard C. Jebb, Commentary on Sophocles: Antigone, Introduction (search)
itted in the other six plays. (2) An anapaest nowhere holds the first place of the trimeter. It may further be noticed that the resolution of any foot of the trimeter is comparatively rare in the Antigone. Including the proper names, there are less than 40 instances. A considerably higher proportion is found in later plays. (3) The use made of anapaestic verse is archaistic in three points. (a) The Parodos contains regular anapaestic systems (see note on vv. 100-161). (b) The Chorus uses anapaests in announcing the entrance of Creon, Antigone, Ismene, Haemon. In the case of Ismene, these anapaests do not follow the stasimon, but occur in the midst of the epeisodion (see vv. 526-530). (c) Anapaests are also admitted, for purposes of dialogue, within an epeisodion (vv. 929-943, where the Chorus, Creon, and Antigone are the speakers). Aeschylus allowed this; but elsewhere it occurs only in the Ajax of Sophocles (another comparatively early play), and in the Medea of Euripides (431 B.C.).
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, APOLLINARE (search)
APOLLINARE a precinct in the prata Flaminia, sacred to Apollo (see APOLLO, AEDES), where the first temple to this divinity was dedicated in 431 B.C. (Liv. iii. 63; Jord. ii. 265; RE i. 2842; HJ 535).
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