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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 31 31 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 2 2 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 3-4 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 31-34 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh) 1 1 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 1 1 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 1 1 Browse Search
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 15. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones) 1 1 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 449 BC or search for 449 BC in all documents.

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Alcibi'ades (*)Alkibia/dhs), the son of Cleinias, was born at Athens about B. C. 450, or a little earlier. His father fell at Coroneia B. C. 447, leaving Alcibiades and a younger son. (Plat. Protag. p. 320a.) The last campaign of the war with Potidaea was in B. C. 429. Now as Alcibiades served in this war, and the young Athenians were not sent out on foreign military service before they had attained their 20th year, he could not have been born later than B. C. 449. If he served in the first campaign (B. C. 432), he must have been at least five years old at the time of his father's death. Nepos (Alcib. 10) says he was about forty years old at the time of his death (B. C. 404), and his mistake has been copied by Mitford. Alcibiades was connected by birth with the noblest families of Athens. Through his father he traced his descent from Eurysaces, the son of Ajax (Plat. Alcib. I. p. 121), and through him from Aeacus and Zeus. His mother, Deinomache, was the daughter of Megacles, the
Apro'nius 1. C. Apronius, elected one of the tribunes of the plebs on the abolition of the decemvirate, B. C. 449. (Liv. 3.54.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
sent a second army under Artabazus and Megabyzus into Egypt. A remnant of the forces of Achaemenes, who were still besieged in a place called the white castle (leuko/n tei=xos), near Memphis, was relieved, and the fleet of the Athenians destroyed by the Athenians themselves, who afterwards quitted Egypt. Inarus, too, was defeated in B. C. 456 or 455, but Amyrtaeus, another chief of the insurgents, maintained himself in the marshes of lower Egypt. (Thuc. 1.104, 109; Diod. 11.71, 74, 77.) In B. C. 449, Cimon sent 60 of his fleet of 300 ships to the assistance of Amyrtaeus, and with the rest endeavoured to wrest Cyprus from the Persians. Notwithstanding the death of Cimon, the Athenians gained two victories, one by land and the other by sea, in the neigbourhood of Salamis in Cyprus. After this defeat Artaxerxes is said to have commanded his generals to conclude peace with the Greeks on any terms. The conditions on which this peace is said to have been concluded are as follows :--that the
licola and Horatius Barbatus put themselves at the head of the popular movement; and when the plebeians seceded to the Sacred Hill, Valerius and Horatius were sent to them by the senate, as the only acceptable deputies, to negotiate the terms of peace. The right of appeal and the tribunes were restored to the plebs, and a full indemnity granted to all engaged in the secession. The deccmvirate was also abolished, and the two friends of the plebs, Valerius and Horatius, were elected consuls, B. C. 449. The liberties of the plebs were still further confirmed in their consulship by the passing of the celebrated Valeriae Horatiae Leges. [POPLICOLA.] Horatius gained a great victory over the Sabines, which inspired them with such dread of Rome, that they did not take up arms again for the next hundred and fifty years. The senate out of spite refused Horatius a triumph, but he celebrated one without their consent, by command of the populous. (Liv. 3.39, &c., 49, 50, 53, 55, 61-63; Dionys. A.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Bellutus, C. Sici'nius was the leader of the plebs in their secession to the Sacred Mountain, B. C. 494, and was afterwards one of the first tribunes of the plebs elected in that year. (Liv. 2.32, 33; Dionys. A. R. 6.45, 70, 72, 82, 89.) He was plebeian aedile in 492 (Dionys. A. R. 7.14), and tribune again in 491, when he distinguished himself by his attacks upon Coriolanus, who was brought to trial in that year. (Dionys. A. R. 7.33-39, 61.) Asconius calls him (in Cornel. p. 76, ed. Orelli) L. Sicinius L. f. Bellutus. It is most probable that his descendants, one of whom we are expressly told was tribune in B. C. 449 (Liv. 3.54), also bore the cognomen Bellutus; but as they are not mentioned by this name in ancient writers, they are given under SICINIUS.
uthority of Aeschines the Socratic, speaks of a capital prosecution instituted against him on extremely weak grounds. Aristeides, who was his cousin, was a witness on the trial, which must therefore have tatken place before B. C. 468, the probable date of Aristeides' death. In Herodotus (7.151) Callias is mentioned as ambassador from Athens to Artaxerxes; and this statement we might identify with that of Diodorus, who ascribes to the victories of Cimon, through the negotiation of Callias, B. C. 449, a peace with Persia on terms most humiliating to the latter, were it not that extreme suspicion rests on the whole account of the treaty in question. (Paus. 1.8; Diod. 12.4; Wesselling, ad loc.; Mitford's Greece, ch. xi. sec. 3, note 11; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. iii. pp. 37, 38, and the authorities there referred to; Böckh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, b. iii. ch. 12, b. iv. ch. 3.) Be this as it may, he did not escape impeachment after his return on the charge of having taken bribes, and was c
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ius Varus. A lex de multae sacramento which was carried in his consulship, is mentioned by Festus (s. v. peculatus, comp. Cic. de Re Publ. 2.35; Liv. 3.31; Dionys. A. R. 10.48, 50). After the close of their office both consuls were accused by a tribune of the people for having sold the booty which they had made in the war against the Aequians, and giving the proceeds to the aerarium instead of distributing it among the soldiers. Both were condemned notwithstanding the violent opposition of the senate. In B. C. 449, when the Roman army advanced towards Rome to revenge the murder of Virginia, and had taken possession of the Aventine, Sp. Tarpeius was one of the two ambassadors whom the senate sent to the revolted army to remonstrate with then. In the year following, he and A. Aternius, though both were patricians, were elected tribunes of the plebs by the cooptation of the college to support the senate in its opposition to the rogation of the tribune L. Trebonius. (Liv. 3.50, 55.) [L.S]
Crates (*Kra/ths), of ATHENS, a comic poet, of the old comedy, was a younger contemporary of Cratinus, in whose plays he was the principal actor before he betook himself to writing comedies. (D. L. 4.23; Aristoph. Kn. 536-540, and Schol.; Anon. de Com. p. xxix.) He began to flourish in Ol. 82. 4, B. C. 449, 448 (Euseb. Chron.), and is spoken of by Aristophanes in such a way as to imply that he was dead before the Knights was acted, Ol. 88. 4, B. C. 424. With respect to the character of his dramas, there is a passage in Aristotle (Aristot. Poet. 5) which has been misunderstood, but which seems simply to mean, that, instead of making his comedies vehicles of personal abuse, he chose such subjects as admitted of a more general mode of depicting character. This is confirmed by the titles and fragments of his plays and by the testimony of the Anonymous writer on Comedy respecting his imitator, Pherecrates (p. xxix). His great excellence is attested by Aristophanes, though in a somewhat ir
437, and when he was more than 80 years old. This date is suspicious in itself, and is falsified by circumstantial evidence. For example, in one fragment he blames the tardiness of Pericles in completing the long walls which we know to have been finished in B. C. 451, and there are a few other fragments which evidently belong to an earlier period than the 85th Olympiad. Again, Crates the comic poet acted the plays of Cratinus before he began to write himself ; but Crates began to write in B. C. 449-448. We can therefore have no hesitation in preferring the date of Eusebius (Chron. s. a. Ol. 81. 3; Syncell. p. 339), although he is manifestly wrong in joining the name of Plato with that of Cratinus. According to this testimony, Cratinus began to exhibit in B. C. 454-453, in about the 66th year of his age. Of his personal history very little is known. His father's name was Callimedes, and he himself was taxiarch of the *Fulh/ *Oi)nh/i+s. (Suid. s. vv. *Krati=nos, *)Ereiou= deilo/teros
Dui'lius 1. M. Duilius, was tribune of the plebs in B. C. 471, in which year the tribunes were for the first time elected in the comitia of the tribes. In the year following, M. Duilius and his colleague, C. Sicinus, summoned Appius Claudius Sabinus, the consul of the year previous, before the assembly of the people, for the violent opposition he made to the agrarian law of Sp. Cassius. [CLAUDIUS, No. 2.] Twenty-two years later, B. C. 449, when the commonalty rose against the tyranny of the decemvirs, he acted as one of the champions of his order, and it was on his advice that the plebeians migrated from the Aventine to the Mons Sacer. When the decemvirs at length were obliged to resign, and the commonalty had returned to the Aventine, M. Duilius and C. Sicinus were invested with the tribuneship a second time, and Duilius immediately proposed and carried a rogation, that consuls should be elected, from whose sentence an appeal to the people should be left open. He then carried a pleb
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