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Appian, The Civil Wars (ed. Horace White) 2 2 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
M. Annaeus Lucanus, Pharsalia (ed. Sir Edward Ridley) 1 1 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 1 1 Browse Search
E. T. Merrill, Commentary on Catullus (ed. E. T. Merrill) 1 1 Browse Search
C. Julius Caesar, Gallic War 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
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M. Tullius Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares (ed. L. C. Purser), AD M. VARRONEM ET CETEROS, Scr. in castris Caesaris circ. in. m. Iun. a. 706 (48). DOLABELLA S. D. CICERONI. (search)
Scr. in castris Caesaris circ. in. m. Iun. a. 706 (48). DOLABELLA S. D. CICERONI. S. v. g. v. et Tullia nostra recte v. Terentia minus belle habuit, sed certum scio iam convaluisse eam ; praeterea rectissime sunt apud te omnia. etsi nullo tempore in suspicionem tibi debui venire partium causa potius quam tua tibi suadere, ut te aut cum Caesare nobiscumque coniungeres aut certe in otium referres, praecipue nunc iam inclinata victoria ne possum quidem in ullam aliam incidere opinionem nisi in eam, in qua scilicet tibi suadere videar quod pie tacere non possim. tu autem, mi Cicero, sic haec accipies ut, sive probabuntur tibi sive non probabuntur, ab optimo certe animo ac deditissimo tibi et cogitata et scripta esse iudices. animadvertis Cn. Pompeium nec nominis sui nec rerum gestarum gloria neque etiam regum ac nationum clientelis, quas ostentare crebro solebat; esse tutum, et hoc etiam, quod infimo cuique contigit, illi non posse contingere, ut honeste effugere possit, pulso I
M. Tullius Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares (ed. L. C. Purser), AD TERENTIAM VXOREM, Scr. Brundisi Non. Novemb. a. 706 (48). TVLLIVS TERENTIAE SVAE S. D. (search)
Scr. Brundisi Non. Novemb. a. 706 (48). TVLLIVS TERENTIAE SVAE S. D. quod nos in Italiam salvos venisse gaudes, perpetuo gaudeas velim ; sed perturbati dolore animi magnisque iniuriis metuo ne id consili ceperimus, quod non facile explicare possimus. qua re quantum potes adiuva ; quid autem possis mihi in mentem non venit. in viam quod te des hoc tempore nihil est. et longum est iter et non tutum, et non video quid prodesse possis, si veneris. vale. D. pr. Non. Nov. Brundisio.
M. Annaeus Lucanus, Pharsalia (ed. Sir Edward Ridley), book 5, line 374 (search)
all the names by which we now Lie to our masters, men found out the use: For to preserve his right to wield the sword He mixed the civil axes with his brands; With eagles, fasces; with an empty word Clothing his power; and stamped upon the time A worthy designation; for what name Could better mark the dread Pharsalian year Than 'Caesar, Consul'?Caesar was named Dictator while at Massilia. Entering Rome, he held the office for eleven days only, but was elected Consul for the incoming year, B.C. 48, along with Servilius Isauricus. (Caesar, 'De Bello Civili,' iii., 1; Merivale, chapter xvi.) Now the famous field Pretends its ancient ceremonies: calls The tribes in order and divides the votes In vain solemnity of empty urns. Nor did they heed the portents of the sky: Deaf were the augurs to the thunder roll; The owl flew on the left; yet were the birds Propitious sworn. Then was the ancient name Degraded first; and monthly Consuls,In the time of the Empire, the degraded Consulship, pr
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK IV. AN ACCOUNT OF COUNTRIES, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, HAVENS, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, DISTANCES, AND PEOPLES WHO NOW EXIST OR FORMERLY EXISTED., CHAP. 15. (8.)—THESSALY PROPER. (search)
called the Bay of Volo., which was afterwards called DemetriasThis is not strictly correct. Demetrias was founded by Demetrius Poliorcetes, about two or three miles to the west of Pagasa, the inhabit- ants of which were removed to that place. Its remains are to be seen, according to Leake, on the face of a maritime height called Goritza., the Plains of Pharsalia, with a free city of similar namePharsalus, now Farsa or Fersala, in Thessaliotis. On its plain Pompey was defeated by Cæsar, B.C. 48., CrannonOr Cranon; said to have been anciently called Ephyre. Leake places its site at some ruins called Palea Larissa, distant two hours and twenty-seven minutes' journey from Larissa. It was the residence of the powerful family of the Scopadæ., and Iletia. The mountains of Phthiotis are Nymphæus, once so beautiful for its garden scenery, the work of nature; Busygæus, Donacesa, BermiusThis range in Macedonia is now called Verria. Herodotus states that it was impassable for cold, and that bey
J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, The Life of Caius Julius Caesar. (search)
atened to place in worthier hands. Caesar's proconsulship of Gaul would expire at the end of B. C. 49. He wished to run for a second consulship in B. C. 48. The senate resolved to prevent this, and commanded him to resign his office and disband his army several months before the expiration of his term. If they couldAfter much skirmishing, anxiety, and suffering (on Caesar's part), owing to scarcity of food and supplies, he fought a battle at Pharsalia in Thessaly on Aug. 9, B. C. 48. Before the battle Pompey's officers felt so sure of victory that a rich banquet was spread awaiting their return from the field. In numbers and equipment Pompey49Proconsul in Gaul. 56Meeting of the Triumvirate at Luca. 50The Trouble with Pompey begins. 49Crosses the Rubicon. Civil War begun. 48The Battle of Pharsalia. 46The Battle of Thapsus. Declared Dictator for ten years. 45The Battle of Munda. Appointed Imperator for life.
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., Life of Cicero. (search)
expected, and he gave up the cause of the Republic for lost. See the passages from Cicero's letters quoted in note to The Pardon of Marcellus, sect. 16 (p. 219, l. 4). On account of illness he was not present at the Battle of Pharsalia (Aug. 9, B.C. 48). After the fate of the contest was decided, he refused to continue the struggle or to follow the adherents of the lost cause to Africa, but returned to Italy (September, B.C. 48), to make terms with the conqueror. He remained at Brundisium untiB.C. 48), to make terms with the conqueror. He remained at Brundisium until Caesar's return from Egypt in September, B.C. 47, when he at once sought an interview. Caesar received him with great kindness and respect, and allowed him once more to return to Rome. From this time until the assassination of Caesar in B.C. 44, Cicero remained for the most part in retirement at his Tusculan villa, absorbed in literary pursuits, though in B.C. 46 he delivered his Oration for Marcellus See pp.213 ff., below. (remarkable for its praise of Caesar), and his Defence of Ligarius,
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., section 7 (search)
imperator: after the news of Pompey's death (B.C. 48) Caesar was made dictator rei publicae constituendae, at the same time receiving certain other special grants of power, and retaining the imperium, which he had now held uninterruptedly for twelve years. Hence the exaggerated expression imperator unus; for in the original sense of this title (see note on p. 252, l. 6) it could be borne by as many officers as was necessary. It was not until the spring of B.C. 45, some months after the delivery of this oration, that Imperator became the title of a new magistrate in whom the imperium was vested for his life, to be transmitted to his descendants. This was the commencement of the Empire, though the office was suspended from the death of Caesar till it was revived by Augustus. From this time the old use of this title was rare. alterum, second. Cicero was imperator by virtue of his provincial government in Cilicia. fascis laureatos: the fasces were wreathed with laurel when the c
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., section 9 (search)
fuisse, subject of esse. nempe, etc., why! one who, etc. in acie Pharsalica: the decisive victory of Caesar over Pompey, at Pharsalus in Thessaly, was gained August 9, B.C. 48. petebat, aimed at - qui sensus, what were the sentiments, etc.? A rhetorical way of asking him with which party he fought. optabas, pray for (stronger than cupiebas).
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., chapter 3 (search)
s troops enemies: this Cicero objects to. vero, forsooth, marks the irony. civium: if not hostes, they were, of course, cives, whom it would be impious to kill. improbis (sc. civibus), criminals. inquit: the mover of the proposition which Cicero is combating is supposed to retort that, though citizens, these are criminals, and that Cicero's sarcasm therefore misses fire. clarissimus vir: P. Servilius Vatia, the proposer of the supplicatio, Caesar's colleague in his second consulship, B.C. 48. quae, etc.: i.e. these words are appropriate not to soldiers in arms against the state but to civil offenders. bellum, etc.: this is Cicero's statement of the real facts as opposed to his ironical suggestion in the preceding sentence. infert, used of offensive war. quattuor consulibus, i.e. besides the consuls, the two consuls elect, Plancus and D. Brutus. unus, i.e. Antony. gent, is actually carrying on. suis cladibus, the evils he himself threatens. Dolabellae facinus: Dolab
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, BELLONA, SACELLUM (search)
BELLONA, SACELLUM a shrine of Bellona on the Capitol, which was inadvertently pulled down by the magistrates when the neighbouring temple of Isis and Serapis was destroyed in 48 B.C. (Cass. Dio xlii. 26: *)evvuei=o/n ti; HJ 554; WR 349; RE iii. 285; Pr. Myth. ii. 386).
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