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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 70 70 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 12 12 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 6 6 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 4 4 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Letters to Atticus (ed. L. C. Purser) 4 4 Browse Search
E. T. Merrill, Commentary on Catullus (ed. E. T. Merrill) 3 3 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 3 3 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 2 2 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares (ed. L. C. Purser) 2 2 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Letters to and from Quintus (ed. L. C. Purser) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 57 BC or search for 57 BC in all documents.

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Alexander (*)Ale/candros), the eldest son of ARISTOBULUS II., king of Judaea, was taken prisoner, with his father and brother, by Pompey, on the capture of Jerusalem (B. C. 63), but made his escape as they were being conveyed to Rome. In B. C. 57, he appeared in Judaea, raised an army of 10,000 foot and 1500 horse, and fortified Alexandreion and other strong posts. Hyrcanus applied for aid to Gabinius, who brought a large army against Alexander, and sent M. Antonius with a body of troops in advance. In a battle fought near Jerusalem, Alexander was defeated with great loss, and took refuge in the fortress of Alexandreion, which was forthwith invested. Through the mediation of his mother he was permitted to depart, on condition of surrendering all the fortresses still in his power. In the following year, during the expedition of Gabinius into Egypt, Alexander again excited the Jews to revolt, and collected an army. He massacred all the Romans who fell in his way, and besieged the rest,
as made to replace Hyrcanus on the throne. (Ant. 14.2, Bell. Jud. 1.6.2.) In B. C. 64, Antipater again supported the cause of this prince before Pompey in Coele-Syria. (Ant. 14.3.2.) In the ensuing year, Jerusalem was taken by Pompey, and Aristobulus was deposed ; and henceforth we find Antipater both zealously adhering to Hyrcanus, and labouring to ingratiate himself with the Romans. His services to the latter, especially against Alexander son of Aristobulus and in Egypt against Archelaus (B. C. 57 and 56), were favourably regarded by Scaurus and Gabinius, the lieutenants of Pompey; his active zeal under Mithridates of Pergamus in the Alexandrian war (B. C. 48) was rewarded by Julius Caesar with the gift of Roman citizenship; and, on Caesar's coming into Syria (B. C. 47), Hyrcanus was confirmed by him in the high-priesthood, through Antipater's influence, notwithstanding the complaints of Antigonus son of Aristobulus, while Antipater himself was appointed procurator of Judaea. (J. AJ
withdrew in impotent discontent to Jerusalem. Pompey still advanced, and Aristobulus again met him and made submission; but, his friends in the city refusing to perform the terms, Pompey besieged and took Jerusalem, and carried away Aristobulus and his children as prisoners. (J. AJ 14.3, 4; Bell. Jud. 1.6, 7; Plut. Pomp. cc. 39, 45; Strab. xvi. p.762; D. C. 37.15, 16.) Appian (Bell. Mith. 100.117) erroneously represents him as having been put to death immediately after Pompey's triumph. In B. C. 57, he escaped from his confinement at Rome with his son Antigonus, and, returning to Judaea, was joined by large numbers of his countrymen and renewed the war; but he was besieged and taken at Machaerus, the fortifications of which he was attempting to restore, and was sent back to Rome by Gabinius. (J. AJ 14.6.1; Bell. Jud. 1. 8.6; Plut. Ant. 100.3; D. C. 39.56.) In B. C. 49, he was again released by Julius Caesar, who sent him into Judaea to forward his interests there; he was, however, poi
Bae'bius 9. M. Baebius, a brave man, slain by order of L. Piso in Macedonia, B. C. 57. (Cic. in Pis. 36.)
Boduogna'tus a leader of the Nervii in their war against Caesar, B. C. 57. (Caes. Gal. 2.23.)
Caeci'lia 6. The wife of P. Lentulus Spinther the younger, whose father was consul in B. C. 57. She was a woman of loose character, and intrigued with Dolabella, Cicero's son-in-law (Cic. Att. 11.23), and also, as it appears, with Aesopus, the son of the actor. (Hor. Serm. 2.3. 239.) She was divorced by her husband in 45. (Cic. Att. 12.52, 13.7.) Her father is not known.
Caeci'lius 3. Q. Caecilius, a Roman knight, a friend of L. Lucullus, and the uncle of Atticus, acquired a large fortune by lending money on interest. The old usurer was of such a crabbed temper, that no one could put up with him except his nephew Atticus, who was in consequence adopted by him in his will, and obtained from him a fortune of ten millions of sesterces. He died in B. C. 57. (Nepos, Att. 5; Cic. Att. 1.1, 12, 2.19, 20, 3.20.)
s of his army to the Rhine, a distance of fifty miles. Only a very few, and among the rest Ariovistus himself, crossed the river; the rest were cut to pieces by the Roman cavalry. [ARIOVISTUS.] Having thus completed two very important wars in one summer, Caesar led his troops into their quarters for the winter early in the autumn, where he left them under the command of Labienus, while he himself went into Cisalpine Gaul to attend to his civil duties in the province. The following year, B. C. 57, was occupied with the Belgic war. Alarmed at Caesar's success, the various Belgic tribes, which dwelt between the Sequana (Seine) and the Rhine, and were the most warlike of all the Gauls, had entered into a confederacy to oppose Caesar, and had raised an army of 300,000 men. Caesar meantime levied two new legions in Cisalpine Gaul, which increased his army to eight legions; but even this was but a small force compared with the overwhelming numbers of the enemy. Caesar was the first to ope
Caesar 23. Sex. Julius Caesar, son of No. 17, was Flamen Quirinalis, and is mentioned in the history of the year B. C. 57. (Cic. de Harusp. Resp. 6.)
6) classes him with Cicero, Hortensius, and the other chief orators of his time, and Quintilian (12.10.10) also speaks of the " subtilitas" of Calidius. Works Orations The first oration of Calidius of which we have mention was delivered in B. C. 64, when he accused Q. Gallius, a candidate for the praetorship, of bribery. Gallius was defended by Cicero, of whose oration a few fragments are extant. (Ascon. in Orat. in Tog. cand. p. 88, ed. Orelli; Cic. Brut. 80 ; Festus, s. v. Sufes.) In B. C. 57 Calidius was praetor, and in that year spoke in favour of restoring the house of Cicero, having previously supported his recall from banishment. (Quintil. x. 1.23 ; Cic. post. Red. in Sen. 9.) In B. C. 54, he defended, in conjunction with Cicero and others, M. Aemilius Scaurus, who was accused of extortion. (Ascon. in Scaur. p. 20.) He also spoke in the same year on behalf of the freedom of the inhabitants of Tenedos, and in support of Gabinius. (Cic. ad Q. Fr. 2.11, 3.2.) In B. C. 52, Cali
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